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Wednesday, November 7, 2012

06:11:2012 - Theory of everything says universe is a transformer

Theory of everything says universe is a transformer

Solving the mysteries of the universe is usually about finding the best answer to a question. But what if we are not even asking the right questions?
A pioneer in quantum computation, University of Oxford physicist and best-selling author David Deutsch has spent most of his career working towards a new way of asking questions about the universe. Deutsch's vision for this"theory of everything" ties together ideas in cosmology, computation, philosophy and evolution to describe the nature of reality.
It has been suggested that his long-awaited theory could account for several fundamental mysteries, such as why time flows in only one direction – aproperty that is not required by most physical laws. Now Deutsch has posted a taste of the form his theory might take, opening the door to what may become a new branch of physics.

Transformations rule

According to Deutsch, the problem with current theories is that they do not adequately explain why some transformations between states of being are possible and some are not. We know, for instance, that dye can dissolve in water and cannot spontaneously clump back together – but we do not know why that must be so.
Deutsch proposes a framework built on the transformations themselves, rather than the components. Called Constructor Theory, this model defines a constructor as anything that causes transformations in physical systems without itself being altered, rather like a chemical catalyst. Deutsch then asks which transformations must be ruled out to achieve a particular result, regardless of the constructor that caused it. In other words, which processes can happen to cause dye to dissolve in water, which ones cannot, and why?
Deutsch's vision can be seen as a generalisation of the second law of thermodynamics, says Vlatko Vedral, also at Oxford. This law encompasses the property of entropy, which says that order leads to disorder in a closed system. Entropy, in turn, implies that we cannot rewind time, because that would involve disordered matter moving towards order.
In Constructor Theory, the key would be figuring out why such a transformation would not be allowed. In asking those types of questions, Deutsch seems to want to apply the notion that some states are simply inaccessible from others to all physical laws, Vedral says.
Laying that groundwork might explain, for instance, why the laws of quantum mechanics are so strict, says Vedral. Small variations in the way we describe quantum laws can lead to contradictions, such as a violation of the speed of light.
"As soon as you modify quantum mechanics, something goes wrong," he says. "Why is this? It's a puzzle." If Constructor Theory can show which transformations are permitted and which are not, that would explain the very underpinnings of quantum mechanics, says Vedral.

Stated intent

"It's tricky to see what this would look like," he admits. And for now, the new paper on Constructor Theory is only a statement of intent, says Vedral. "It's not yet at the level where you can recover existing physics." But he is excited about the possibilities.
What Deutsch seems to be reaching for is a theory that goes beyond a computational view of the universe, says Seth Lloyd at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge. Such a theory might not only help unify relativity and quantum mechanics, it might also show that they are necessary parts of the universe, answering the troubling philosophical question of why things are the way they are, he says.
"If Deutsch can do that, it would be awesome," adds Lloyd.
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How to Digitally Record/Video a UFO sighting:

Como registar digitalmente ou gravar um vídeo de um avistamento de um UFO:

Stabilize the camera on a tripod. If there is no tripod, then set it on top of a stable, flat surface. If that is not possible lean against a wall to stabilize your body and prevent the camera from filming in a shaky, unsteady manner.

Estabilize a camera com um tripé. Se não tiver um tripé, então coloque-a em cima de uma superfície estável. Se não for possível, então encoste-se a uma parede para estabilizar o corpo e evitar que a camera registe de maneira tremida e instável.

Provide visual reference points for comparison. This includes the horizon, treetops, lampposts, houses, and geographical landmarks (i.e., Horsetooth Reservoir, Mt. Adams, etc.) Provide this in the video whenever is appropriate and doesn’t detract from what your focus is, the UFO.

Forneça pontos visuais de referência para comparação. Isso inclui o horizonte, cimo das árvores, postes de iluminação, pontos de referência geográficos (como o Reservatório de Horsetooth, Mone Adams, etc) Forneça esses pontos no vídeo sempre que for apropriado e não se distraia do que é o seu foco, o UFO/a Nave.

Narrate your videotape. Provide details of the date, time, location, and direction (N,S,E,W) you are looking in. Provide your observations on the weather, including approximate temperature, windspeed, any visible cloud cover or noticeable weather anomalies or events. Narrate on the shape, size, color, movements, approximate altitude of the UFO, etc and what it appears to be doing. Also include any unusual physical, psychological or emotional sensations you might have. Narrate any visual reference points on camera so they correlate with what the viewer will see, and thereby will be better able to understand.

Faça a narração do vídeo. Forneça pormenores sobre a data, hora, local e direcção (Norte, Sul, Este, Oeste) que está a observar. Faça observações sobre as condições atmosféricas, incluindo a temperatura aproximada, velocidade do vento, quantidade de nuvens, anomalias ou acontecimentos meteorológicos evidentes. Descreva a forma, o tamanho, a cor, os movimentos, a altitude aproximada onde se encontra o UFO/nave, etc e o que aparenta estar a fazer. Inclua também quaisquer aspectos pouco habituais de sensações físicas, psicológicas ou emocionais que possa ter. Faça a narração de todos os pontos de referência visual que o espectador irá ver e que, deste modo, será capaz de compreender melhor.

Be persistent and consistent. Return to the scene to videotape and record at this same location. If you have been successful once, the UFO sightings may be occurring in this region regularly, perhaps for specific reasons unknown, and you may be successful again. You may also wish to return to the same location at a different time of day (daylight hours) for better orientation and reference. Film just a minute or two under “normal” circumstances for comparison. Write down what you remember immediately after. As soon as you are done recording the experience/event, immediately write down your impressions, memories, thoughts, emotions, etc. so it is on the record in writing. If there were other witnesses, have them independently record their own impressions, thoughts, etc. Include in this exercise any drawings, sketches, or diagrams. Make sure you date and sign your documentation.

Seja persistente e não contraditório. Volte ao local da cena e registe o mesmo local. Se foi bem sucedido uma vez, pode ser que nessa região ocorram avistamentos de UFOs/naves com regularidade, talvez por razões específicas desconhecidas, e talvez possa ser novamente bem sucedido. Pode também desejar voltar ao mesmo lugar a horas diferentes do dia (durante as horas de luz)para ter uma orientação e referência melhor. Filme apenas um ,inuto ou dois em circunstâncias “normais” para ter um termo de comparação. Escreva tudo o que viu imediatamente após o acontecimento. Logo após ter feito o registo da experiência/acontecimento, escreva imediatamente as impressões, memórias, pensamentos, emoções, etc para que fiquem registadas por escrito. Se houver outras testemunhas, peça-lhes para registar independentemente as suas próprias impressões, pensamentos, etc. Inclua quaisquer desenhos, esbolos, diagramas. Certifique-se que data e assina o seu documento/testemunho.

Always be prepared. Have a digital camera or better yet a video camera with you, charged and ready to go, at all times. Make sure you know how to use your camera (and your cell phone video/photo camera) quickly and properly. These events can occur suddenly, unexpectedly, and often quite randomly, so you will need to be prepared.

Esteja sempre preparado, Tenha sempre uma camera digital, melhor ainda, uma camera vídeo consigo, carregada e pronta a usar sempre que necessário. Certifique-se que sabe como lidar com a sua camera (ou com o seu celular/camera fotográfica) rápida e adequadamente. Esses acontecimentos podem acontecer súbita e inesperadamente e, por vezes, acidentalmente, por isso, necessita estar preparado.

Look up. Be prepared. Report. Share.

Olhe para cima, Esteja preparado, Relate, Partilhe.



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