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Tuesday, December 2, 2014

Life Spreading Across Space From Contamination? Scientists ‘Worried’ After DNA Survives On Exterior Of Rocket

Life Spreading Across Space From Contamination? Scientists ‘Worried’ After DNA Survives On Exterior Of Rocket





In something that only seems possible in a sci-fi movie, imagine scientists discovering life on another planet only to learn that the extraterrestrial life originated on Earth. New research suggests that life spreading planet to planet from space bodies contaminated with human DNA, or other earthly living objects, is possible.
First sea plankton were found living on the exterior of the International Space Station, now scientists have discovered that it is possible for DNA samples to survive at least a short space ride on the exterior of a rocket.
A new study published in PLOS One reports that DNA squirted onto the exterior of a TEXUS-49 sounding rocket remained functional following a 13-minute low-orbit flight to space. The lead author on the DNA study, and molecular biologist at University of Zurich, Cora Thiel, noted that findings were not expected and “made us a little bit worried.”
“We were totally surprised…We never expected to recover so many intact and functional active DNA. Our findings made us a little bit worried about the probability of contaminating space crafts, landers and landing sites with DNA from Earth.”
Space.com notes that with every spacecraft that leaves Earth, millions of microbes try to hitch a ride into outer space. This opens the possibility to “forward contamination.” Forward contamination is when microbes from the Earth get transported on outbound spacecraft to other planetary bodies, potentially colonizing those environments.
The research happened by chance. The researchers intended to examine the effect of gravity on DNA. The experiment was placed inside the cargo bay of the rocket. However, during flight preparations the researchers decided to put some DNA on the exterior of the rocket as well: around the outside of the payload, in the grooves of the screw heads, and underneath the payload. Their intention was to test the robustness of a biomarker in the DNA – a specific portion of the DNA strand that contains instructions for a specific function.
When the rocket returned, the researchers were not expecting to find functioning DNA on the exterior features, but they did. The report notes that a small amount of DNA was found in all three locations with as much as a third of the DNA still functioning.

The study is only a small step towards better understanding the possibility of forward contamination. The researchers note that the DNA used in the experiment was not chromosomal DNA like that of humans, but was plasmid DNA which can be found in some bacteria. The study did not involve the larger chromosomal DNA, but suggests that a separate experiment should be considered.
“We cannot say how these big chromosomal DNA molecules would react under the same conditions and this should be investigated in a separate experiment. In general, we think that survival of microorganisms or of ‘molecules of life’ during re-entry requires a combination of different favorable and ‘protective’ factors and may be therefore not the ‘rule’, but more a probable, but seldom case. But – nevertheless – DNA survival is possible, as demonstrated in our experiment.”

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How to Digitally Record/Video a UFO sighting:


Como registar digitalmente ou gravar um vídeo de um avistamento de um UFO:




Stabilize the camera on a tripod. If there is no tripod, then set it on top of a stable, flat surface. If that is not possible lean against a wall to stabilize your body and prevent the camera from filming in a shaky, unsteady manner.

Estabilize a camera com um tripé. Se não tiver um tripé, então coloque-a em cima de uma superfície estável. Se não for possível, então encoste-se a uma parede para estabilizar o corpo e evitar que a camera registe de maneira tremida e instável.

Provide visual reference points for comparison. This includes the horizon, treetops, lampposts, houses, and geographical landmarks (i.e., Horsetooth Reservoir, Mt. Adams, etc.) Provide this in the video whenever is appropriate and doesn’t detract from what your focus is, the UFO.

Forneça pontos visuais de referência para comparação. Isso inclui o horizonte, cimo das árvores, postes de iluminação, pontos de referência geográficos (como o Reservatório de Horsetooth, Mone Adams, etc) Forneça esses pontos no vídeo sempre que for apropriado e não se distraia do que é o seu foco, o UFO/a Nave.

Narrate your videotape. Provide details of the date, time, location, and direction (N,S,E,W) you are looking in. Provide your observations on the weather, including approximate temperature, windspeed, any visible cloud cover or noticeable weather anomalies or events. Narrate on the shape, size, color, movements, approximate altitude of the UFO, etc and what it appears to be doing. Also include any unusual physical, psychological or emotional sensations you might have. Narrate any visual reference points on camera so they correlate with what the viewer will see, and thereby will be better able to understand.

Faça a narração do vídeo. Forneça pormenores sobre a data, hora, local e direcção (Norte, Sul, Este, Oeste) que está a observar. Faça observações sobre as condições atmosféricas, incluindo a temperatura aproximada, velocidade do vento, quantidade de nuvens, anomalias ou acontecimentos meteorológicos evidentes. Descreva a forma, o tamanho, a cor, os movimentos, a altitude aproximada onde se encontra o UFO/nave, etc e o que aparenta estar a fazer. Inclua também quaisquer aspectos pouco habituais de sensações físicas, psicológicas ou emocionais que possa ter. Faça a narração de todos os pontos de referência visual que o espectador irá ver e que, deste modo, será capaz de compreender melhor.

Be persistent and consistent. Return to the scene to videotape and record at this same location. If you have been successful once, the UFO sightings may be occurring in this region regularly, perhaps for specific reasons unknown, and you may be successful again. You may also wish to return to the same location at a different time of day (daylight hours) for better orientation and reference. Film just a minute or two under “normal” circumstances for comparison. Write down what you remember immediately after. As soon as you are done recording the experience/event, immediately write down your impressions, memories, thoughts, emotions, etc. so it is on the record in writing. If there were other witnesses, have them independently record their own impressions, thoughts, etc. Include in this exercise any drawings, sketches, or diagrams. Make sure you date and sign your documentation.

Seja persistente e não contraditório. Volte ao local da cena e registe o mesmo local. Se foi bem sucedido uma vez, pode ser que nessa região ocorram avistamentos de UFOs/naves com regularidade, talvez por razões específicas desconhecidas, e talvez possa ser novamente bem sucedido. Pode também desejar voltar ao mesmo lugar a horas diferentes do dia (durante as horas de luz)para ter uma orientação e referência melhor. Filme apenas um ,inuto ou dois em circunstâncias “normais” para ter um termo de comparação. Escreva tudo o que viu imediatamente após o acontecimento. Logo após ter feito o registo da experiência/acontecimento, escreva imediatamente as impressões, memórias, pensamentos, emoções, etc para que fiquem registadas por escrito. Se houver outras testemunhas, peça-lhes para registar independentemente as suas próprias impressões, pensamentos, etc. Inclua quaisquer desenhos, esbolos, diagramas. Certifique-se que data e assina o seu documento/testemunho.

Always be prepared. Have a digital camera or better yet a video camera with you, charged and ready to go, at all times. Make sure you know how to use your camera (and your cell phone video/photo camera) quickly and properly. These events can occur suddenly, unexpectedly, and often quite randomly, so you will need to be prepared.

Esteja sempre preparado, Tenha sempre uma camera digital, melhor ainda, uma camera vídeo consigo, carregada e pronta a usar sempre que necessário. Certifique-se que sabe como lidar com a sua camera (ou com o seu celular/camera fotográfica) rápida e adequadamente. Esses acontecimentos podem acontecer súbita e inesperadamente e, por vezes, acidentalmente, por isso, necessita estar preparado.

Look up. Be prepared. Report. Share.

Olhe para cima, Esteja preparado, Relate, Partilhe.

MUFON.COM

ESOTERIC



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