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Friday, January 15, 2016

Comet Catalina closest this weekend

Hints on how to perceive the comet’s gradual motion across the sky as it sweeps closest – but not too close – around January 17.

View larger. | Facing northeast beginning around 1:00 a.m. local time – the time on your clock from most parts of the globe – until sunrise from January 15 to 21, 2016. Comet Catalina passes very close to the stars that form the Big Dipper as it nears its closest point to Earth. Illustration by Eddie Irizarry using Stellarium.

View larger. | Facing northeast beginning around 1 a.m. local time – the time on your clock from most parts of the globe – until sunrise from January 15 to 21, 2016. Comet Catalina passes very close to the stars that form the Big Dipper as it nears its closest point to Earth. Illustration by Eddie Irizarry using Stellarium.

UPDATE JANUARY 14, 2016: Comet C/2013 US10 (Catalina) will pass nearest to Earth at a very safe distance this weekend, on January 17. At its closest, the comet will be some 68 million miles (110 million km) from Earth. It isn’t visible to the eye alone, but binoculars should reveal it as a small fuzzy patch of light in the sky after midnight and before dawn. If you have a small telescope, this comet will make a fantastic target. Although the actual movement of the comet is difficult to perceive in real time because of its distance, you should be able to see that the comet has shifted its position, over perhaps a quarter of an hour, through a telescope. With your ‘scope, take a good look at the comet as well as stars in the vicinity of this celestial visitor. Try making a simple sketch of the comet’s location relative to nearby stars. Then, look again through the telescope eyepiece about 15 or 20 minutes later, and you will clearly see Comet Catalina has changed position!


Due to its distance, the comet appears to move slowly across the sky. However, it is traveling through space at an astounding speed of 132,000 miles per hour (212,433 km/h).

In the coming days, the comet is passing near on the sky’s dome to the stars that form the Big Dipper. Current brightness estimates put Comet Catalina at a magnitude 6.2 to 6.4, just below the level for viewing with the unaided eye, but visible in binoculars, and a fine object for a small telescope. Try looking in the wee hours after midnight, or before sunrise.


Facing east beginning around 4:30 a.m. local time until sunrise in early January. How can you know which star is Arcturus? The stars that form the Big Dipper’s handle point to this star. Before sunrise on January 9, Comet Catalina will be located at the tip of the arrow. Illustration by Eddie Irizarry using Stellarium.

Facing east beginning around 4:30 a.m. local time until sunrise in early January. Notice that the stars that form the Big Dipper’s handle point to the bright orange or reddish star Arcturus. Before sunrise on January 9, Comet Catalina will be located at the tip of the arrow. Illustration by Eddie Irizarry using Stellarium.

Comet Catalina on December 7 by Geraint Smith in New Mexico.

Comet Catalina on December 7 by Geraint Smith in New Mexico.

When and where should I begin to look? The comet is still primarily in our morning sky. By 1 a.m., it’s up above the northeastern horizon.

Its brightness has been pretty steady, and, by all reports, Comet Catalina has never risen above magnitude 6, the limit of visibility to the unaided eye. But it has hovered just below that limit.

The moon is back in the evening sky now and has left the morning sky dark. That’s good! If you go to a location far from city lights, you should be able to sweep with your binoculars and find this comet.

The comet was closest to the sun on November 15, 2015, so it is moving away from the sun now. On January 17, 2016, Comet Catalina will be at its closest point to Earth, about some 68 million miles (110 million km) away. That’s in contrast to the moon’s distance of about a quarter million miles … so you can see the comet will come nowhere near us.

Remember – because it’s relatively close to us in contrast to the star background – the comet is moving slowly across our sky’s dome. When the comet is closest, you should be able to detect this motion through the eyepiece of your telescope in about 15 or 20 minutes.


Animated gif of Comet Catalina - composed of images taken December 4, 2015 - by Doug Durig.  In this image, you can see some detail in the comet's tail ...

Comet Catalina images taken December 4, 2015 by Doug Durig. Here, you can see some detail in the comet’s tail …

What will Comet Catalina look like? The comet’s tail has been some 500,000 miles (800,000 km) long! And it has shown a double tail. Some photos have captured even more detail. With binoculars, though, you’re likely to spot the comet as a small, circular, hazy patch. You might see at most a short tail for this comet. It’s likely you won’t see any color at all.

Telescopes will provide a better view. Even while observing visually with a telescope, you will not see the green color of the comet, as shown some photos. That color is mainly seen in pictures of this comet, and many comets. Cameras are more sensitive than the human eye and after a few seconds or minutes of exposure, they provide very good views of the colors that exist in comets.

But visual observers using telescopes in December, 2015, might be able to glimpse a hint of Comet Catalina’s green coma or cometary atmosphere.

And, by the way, the green color we see in comets is from gases like diatomic carbon.

View larger. | Greg Hogan in Kathleen, Georgia caught this photo on December 7, 2015.  He wrote:

View larger. | Greg Hogan in Kathleen, Georgia caught this photo on December 7, 2015. He wrote: “So what are the odds? I was going through the images from Dec 7th and noticed that in one of the shots there was two meteors! One was the tail end of a bright one, and one is faint. I saw some large bright ones that morning but was not sure if they were in the frame. It seems part of one was.”

Here are some important dates.

October 31, 2013. The Catalina Sky Survey in Arizona discovered a comet, later called C/2013 US10 (Catalina). At first, astronomers thought it was a rocky or metallic asteroid, but further observations confirmed it as an icy comet.

November 15, 2015. Comet Catalina was at perihelion or closest to the sun. It did not come as close to the sun as some comets do. At closest approach to our star, the comet was moving between the orbits of planets Earth and Venus. Its perihelion distance was 0.82 AU from the sun (1 AU = 1 Earth-sun distance). Comet Catalina was traveling at a speed of 103,000 miles per hour (166,000 km/h) relative to the sun at perihelion.

November 23 to 30,2015. Comet Catalina became visible for Northern Hemisphere observers.

December 7,2015. Sky show! Comet Catalina was visible close to Venus and the waning moon.

December 31,2015. Comet will be approaching the apparent position of the star Arcturus on our sky’s dome. Another good photo opportunity.

January 1,2016. Comet Catalina will be passing very close to star Arcturus. An excellent reference to finding the comet in the sky!

January 17,2016. Comet Catalina will pass some 68 million miles (110 million km) from Earth. That’s very, very far from Earth – hundreds of times farther than the moon’s distance. So there is no danger of a collision. That said, let’s talk about the size of the comet’s nucleus or core. Some estimates indicate the nucleus of Comet Catalina ranges between 4 and 20 kilometers in diameter.

January 1, 2016, from 2 a.m. to sunrise, local time. The comet will be very near the bright star Arcturus in the constellation Bootes.  Photo opportunity!

January 1, 2016, from 2 a.m. to sunrise, local time. The comet will be very near the bright star Arcturus in the constellation Bootes. Photo opportunity!

When is the next predicted comet visible to the eye alone? The next predicted comet that may be reach visibility to the unaided eye – and be really easy to spot – is Comet 46P/Wirtanen. It will appear as a sky gift for Christmas of 2018.

Although Comet 46P may show a magnitude of 3 or 4, there is always the possibility that a newly found comet will provide a good celestial show prior to that time.

Bottom line: Comet C/2013 US10 (Catalina) is now visible in binoculars, in December, 2015. When and where to look, what to expect, some important dates to remember.



By courtesy of Maya Benmergui

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How to Digitally Record/Video a UFO sighting:


Como registar digitalmente ou gravar um vídeo de um avistamento de um UFO:




Stabilize the camera on a tripod. If there is no tripod, then set it on top of a stable, flat surface. If that is not possible lean against a wall to stabilize your body and prevent the camera from filming in a shaky, unsteady manner.

Estabilize a camera com um tripé. Se não tiver um tripé, então coloque-a em cima de uma superfície estável. Se não for possível, então encoste-se a uma parede para estabilizar o corpo e evitar que a camera registe de maneira tremida e instável.

Provide visual reference points for comparison. This includes the horizon, treetops, lampposts, houses, and geographical landmarks (i.e., Horsetooth Reservoir, Mt. Adams, etc.) Provide this in the video whenever is appropriate and doesn’t detract from what your focus is, the UFO.

Forneça pontos visuais de referência para comparação. Isso inclui o horizonte, cimo das árvores, postes de iluminação, pontos de referência geográficos (como o Reservatório de Horsetooth, Mone Adams, etc) Forneça esses pontos no vídeo sempre que for apropriado e não se distraia do que é o seu foco, o UFO/a Nave.

Narrate your videotape. Provide details of the date, time, location, and direction (N,S,E,W) you are looking in. Provide your observations on the weather, including approximate temperature, windspeed, any visible cloud cover or noticeable weather anomalies or events. Narrate on the shape, size, color, movements, approximate altitude of the UFO, etc and what it appears to be doing. Also include any unusual physical, psychological or emotional sensations you might have. Narrate any visual reference points on camera so they correlate with what the viewer will see, and thereby will be better able to understand.

Faça a narração do vídeo. Forneça pormenores sobre a data, hora, local e direcção (Norte, Sul, Este, Oeste) que está a observar. Faça observações sobre as condições atmosféricas, incluindo a temperatura aproximada, velocidade do vento, quantidade de nuvens, anomalias ou acontecimentos meteorológicos evidentes. Descreva a forma, o tamanho, a cor, os movimentos, a altitude aproximada onde se encontra o UFO/nave, etc e o que aparenta estar a fazer. Inclua também quaisquer aspectos pouco habituais de sensações físicas, psicológicas ou emocionais que possa ter. Faça a narração de todos os pontos de referência visual que o espectador irá ver e que, deste modo, será capaz de compreender melhor.

Be persistent and consistent. Return to the scene to videotape and record at this same location. If you have been successful once, the UFO sightings may be occurring in this region regularly, perhaps for specific reasons unknown, and you may be successful again. You may also wish to return to the same location at a different time of day (daylight hours) for better orientation and reference. Film just a minute or two under “normal” circumstances for comparison. Write down what you remember immediately after. As soon as you are done recording the experience/event, immediately write down your impressions, memories, thoughts, emotions, etc. so it is on the record in writing. If there were other witnesses, have them independently record their own impressions, thoughts, etc. Include in this exercise any drawings, sketches, or diagrams. Make sure you date and sign your documentation.

Seja persistente e não contraditório. Volte ao local da cena e registe o mesmo local. Se foi bem sucedido uma vez, pode ser que nessa região ocorram avistamentos de UFOs/naves com regularidade, talvez por razões específicas desconhecidas, e talvez possa ser novamente bem sucedido. Pode também desejar voltar ao mesmo lugar a horas diferentes do dia (durante as horas de luz)para ter uma orientação e referência melhor. Filme apenas um ,inuto ou dois em circunstâncias “normais” para ter um termo de comparação. Escreva tudo o que viu imediatamente após o acontecimento. Logo após ter feito o registo da experiência/acontecimento, escreva imediatamente as impressões, memórias, pensamentos, emoções, etc para que fiquem registadas por escrito. Se houver outras testemunhas, peça-lhes para registar independentemente as suas próprias impressões, pensamentos, etc. Inclua quaisquer desenhos, esbolos, diagramas. Certifique-se que data e assina o seu documento/testemunho.

Always be prepared. Have a digital camera or better yet a video camera with you, charged and ready to go, at all times. Make sure you know how to use your camera (and your cell phone video/photo camera) quickly and properly. These events can occur suddenly, unexpectedly, and often quite randomly, so you will need to be prepared.

Esteja sempre preparado, Tenha sempre uma camera digital, melhor ainda, uma camera vídeo consigo, carregada e pronta a usar sempre que necessário. Certifique-se que sabe como lidar com a sua camera (ou com o seu celular/camera fotográfica) rápida e adequadamente. Esses acontecimentos podem acontecer súbita e inesperadamente e, por vezes, acidentalmente, por isso, necessita estar preparado.

Look up. Be prepared. Report. Share.

Olhe para cima, Esteja preparado, Relate, Partilhe.

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