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Sunday, January 21, 2018

The Downside of a Low Salt Diet


I recently got the chance to interview my friend James J. DiNicolantonio, PharmD, author of The Salt Fixand I’m really excited to share this interview with you. I also asked James to write a few words about why low salt diets might be harmful for some, and here’s what he had to say…
We are constantly being warned about the harmful effects of salt. All health agencies, government bodies, and dietary guidelines tell us to cut our salt intake to no more than 2,300 mg of sodium per day (about 1 teaspoon of salt). We are told that cutting back on salt saves lives and that the amount of salt consumed by the average American (one and a half teaspoons of salt) puts you at risk. This is based on the assumption that lowering salt intake will lead to a reduction in blood pressure, and that reducing blood pressure will reduce the risk of strokes and heart attacks. 
Unfortunately, we are only being told one side of the story. The other side of the story is starting to make itself heard—the New York Times, for instance, just covered a study of Russian cosmonauts that hints that there’s more to the story than we’ve been told—but that’s just the tip of the iceberg.
Here’s part of that other side of the story. When we cut our salt intake, blood pressure may go down but it also may go up. In fact, people with normal blood pressure who cut their salt intake are equally as likely to see an increase in blood pressure (~15%) as a reduction in blood pressure (~18%). The other 70% or so experience no change in their blood pressure. And this finding has been confirmed in a study of patients primarily having borderline or mild hypertension.
And even if cutting salt intake lowers blood pressure (a big if), a reduction in blood pressure caused by salt restriction may not be a good thing. That salt-induced reduction in blood pressure generally indicates volume depletion, which needs to be compensated for by an activation in salt-retaining hormones in the body. Unfortunately, these salt-retaining hormones, such as renin, angiotensin-II and aldosterone, are well known to stiffen the arteries. We actually block these hormones with medications to prevent strokes, heart attacks, and deaths. This may be why animal studies show that low-salt diets accelerate atherosclerosis. The other stress hormones that get activated on a low-salt diet include adrenaline and noradrenaline, which increases our heart rate, potentially increasing the risk of having a stroke or heart attack.
And the harms of low-salt diets do not end with a potentially higher blood pressure and heart rate and a rise in artery-stiffening stress hormones. Another hormone, a fat-storing hormone called insulin, can also become elevated with low-salt intakes. In fact, a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in humans has confirmed this. In other words, low-salt diets may increase your risk of becoming overweight or obese by raising the fat-storing hormone insulin. Are you starting to see how cutting our salt intake for the “sake of our blood pressure” doesn’t make much sense?
Low-salt diets may even increase the risk for prediabetes and diabetes by promoting insulin resistance. In fact, restricting salt intake may actually cause the one disease state we think it is going to prevent, hypertension (aka, high blood pressure), by making our arteries resistant to the vasodilating effects of insulin. Studies also suggest that low-salt diets increase vascular resistance. This is likely due to a reduction in vasodilation, or an enhanced vasoconstriction, in order to maintain adequate blood volume while on a low-salt diet.
And what about people with high blood pressure? Surely, they benefit from salt restriction? Not necessarily. Evidence suggests that low-salt diets increase blood viscosity and increase platelet activation in patients with hypertension. In other words, your platelets may be more likely to stick together, increasing the risk for a stroke or heart attack. This is consistent with the evidence showing that low-salt diets may increase the risk of cardiovascular events, cardiovascular death, and mortality.
We need to shift our fear away from salt, and focus greater attention on the more consequential white crystal (sugar). Rather than following salt restriction, we may be better off eating real food and salting to taste. – James J. DiNicolantonio, PharmD and Author of The Salt FixFollow on Twitter @drjamesdinic.


Mark Hyman MD is the Director of Cleveland Clinic’s Center for Functional Medicine, the Founder of The UltraWellness Center, and a ten-time #1 New York Times Bestselling author.

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How to Digitally Record/Video a UFO sighting:


Como registar digitalmente ou gravar um vídeo de um avistamento de um UFO:




Stabilize the camera on a tripod. If there is no tripod, then set it on top of a stable, flat surface. If that is not possible lean against a wall to stabilize your body and prevent the camera from filming in a shaky, unsteady manner.

Estabilize a camera com um tripé. Se não tiver um tripé, então coloque-a em cima de uma superfície estável. Se não for possível, então encoste-se a uma parede para estabilizar o corpo e evitar que a camera registe de maneira tremida e instável.

Provide visual reference points for comparison. This includes the horizon, treetops, lampposts, houses, and geographical landmarks (i.e., Horsetooth Reservoir, Mt. Adams, etc.) Provide this in the video whenever is appropriate and doesn’t detract from what your focus is, the UFO.

Forneça pontos visuais de referência para comparação. Isso inclui o horizonte, cimo das árvores, postes de iluminação, pontos de referência geográficos (como o Reservatório de Horsetooth, Mone Adams, etc) Forneça esses pontos no vídeo sempre que for apropriado e não se distraia do que é o seu foco, o UFO/a Nave.

Narrate your videotape. Provide details of the date, time, location, and direction (N,S,E,W) you are looking in. Provide your observations on the weather, including approximate temperature, windspeed, any visible cloud cover or noticeable weather anomalies or events. Narrate on the shape, size, color, movements, approximate altitude of the UFO, etc and what it appears to be doing. Also include any unusual physical, psychological or emotional sensations you might have. Narrate any visual reference points on camera so they correlate with what the viewer will see, and thereby will be better able to understand.

Faça a narração do vídeo. Forneça pormenores sobre a data, hora, local e direcção (Norte, Sul, Este, Oeste) que está a observar. Faça observações sobre as condições atmosféricas, incluindo a temperatura aproximada, velocidade do vento, quantidade de nuvens, anomalias ou acontecimentos meteorológicos evidentes. Descreva a forma, o tamanho, a cor, os movimentos, a altitude aproximada onde se encontra o UFO/nave, etc e o que aparenta estar a fazer. Inclua também quaisquer aspectos pouco habituais de sensações físicas, psicológicas ou emocionais que possa ter. Faça a narração de todos os pontos de referência visual que o espectador irá ver e que, deste modo, será capaz de compreender melhor.

Be persistent and consistent. Return to the scene to videotape and record at this same location. If you have been successful once, the UFO sightings may be occurring in this region regularly, perhaps for specific reasons unknown, and you may be successful again. You may also wish to return to the same location at a different time of day (daylight hours) for better orientation and reference. Film just a minute or two under “normal” circumstances for comparison. Write down what you remember immediately after. As soon as you are done recording the experience/event, immediately write down your impressions, memories, thoughts, emotions, etc. so it is on the record in writing. If there were other witnesses, have them independently record their own impressions, thoughts, etc. Include in this exercise any drawings, sketches, or diagrams. Make sure you date and sign your documentation.

Seja persistente e não contraditório. Volte ao local da cena e registe o mesmo local. Se foi bem sucedido uma vez, pode ser que nessa região ocorram avistamentos de UFOs/naves com regularidade, talvez por razões específicas desconhecidas, e talvez possa ser novamente bem sucedido. Pode também desejar voltar ao mesmo lugar a horas diferentes do dia (durante as horas de luz)para ter uma orientação e referência melhor. Filme apenas um ,inuto ou dois em circunstâncias “normais” para ter um termo de comparação. Escreva tudo o que viu imediatamente após o acontecimento. Logo após ter feito o registo da experiência/acontecimento, escreva imediatamente as impressões, memórias, pensamentos, emoções, etc para que fiquem registadas por escrito. Se houver outras testemunhas, peça-lhes para registar independentemente as suas próprias impressões, pensamentos, etc. Inclua quaisquer desenhos, esbolos, diagramas. Certifique-se que data e assina o seu documento/testemunho.

Always be prepared. Have a digital camera or better yet a video camera with you, charged and ready to go, at all times. Make sure you know how to use your camera (and your cell phone video/photo camera) quickly and properly. These events can occur suddenly, unexpectedly, and often quite randomly, so you will need to be prepared.

Esteja sempre preparado, Tenha sempre uma camera digital, melhor ainda, uma camera vídeo consigo, carregada e pronta a usar sempre que necessário. Certifique-se que sabe como lidar com a sua camera (ou com o seu celular/camera fotográfica) rápida e adequadamente. Esses acontecimentos podem acontecer súbita e inesperadamente e, por vezes, acidentalmente, por isso, necessita estar preparado.

Look up. Be prepared. Report. Share.

Olhe para cima, Esteja preparado, Relate, Partilhe.

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