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Thursday, July 1, 2010

June 15 - US experiment hints at 'multiple God particles'‏

Dear Friends,
"There is only One of Us and at the same time there are many of Us..."
Be Well.
David

US experiment hints at 'multiple God particles'

By Paul Rincon
Science reporter, BBC News


DZero (Fermilab)
The idea comes from results gathered by the DZero experiment

There may be multiple versions of the elusive "God particle" - or Higgs boson - according to a new study.


Finding the Higgs is the primary aim of the £6bn ($10bn) Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiment near Geneva.
But recent results from the LHC's US rival suggest physicists could be hunting five particles, not one.


The data may point to new laws of physics beyond the current accepted theory - known as the Standard Model.
The Higgs boson's nickname comes from its importance to the Standard Model; it is the sub-atomic particle which explains why all other particles have mass.


However, despite decades trying, no-one, so far, has detected it.


The idea of multiple Higgs bosons is supported by results gathered by the DZero experiment at the Tevatron particle accelerator, operated by Fermilab in Illinois, US.

The Standard Model fits just about every test we've thrown at it. To fit in a new effect in one particular place is not easy

Dr Adam Martin Fermilab

DZero is designed to shed light on why the world around us is composed of normal matter and not its shadowy opposite: anti-matter.


Researchers working on the experiment observed collisions of protons and anti-protons in the Tevatron.


The collisions produced pairs of matter particles slightly more often than they yielded anti-matter particles.


Physicists had already seen such differences - known as "CP violation", but these effects were small compared to those seen by the DZero experiment.


The DZero results showed much more significant "asymmetry" of matter and anti-matter - beyond what could be explained by the Standard Model.


Infographic (BBC)

Bogdan Dobrescu, Adam Martin and Patrick J Fox from Fermilab say this large asymmetry effect can be accounted for by the existence of multiple Higgs bosons.


They say the data points to five Higgs bosons with similar masses but different electric charges.


Three would have a neutral charge and one each would have a negative and positive electric charge. This is known as the two-Higgs doublet model.

Dr Martin told BBC News that the two-Higgs doublet could explain the results seen by the DZero team while keeping much of the Standard Model intact.

"In models with an extra Higgs doublet, it's easy to have large new physics effects like this DZero result," he explained.

"What's difficult is to have those large effects without damaging anything else that we have already measured."
Dr Martin explained that there were other possible interpretations for the DZero result.

But he added: "The Standard Model fits just about every test we've thrown at it. To fit in a new effect in one particular place is not easy."
Developed in the 1970s, the Standard Model incorporated all that was then known about the interactions of sub-atomic particles.
Stepping stone
But today, many physicists regard it as incomplete, a mere stepping stone to something else.

The Standard Model cannot explain the best known of the so-called four fundamental forces: gravity; and it describes only ordinary matter, not the dark matter which makes up some 25% of the Universe.
Simulated Higgs  production at Atlas (Cern)
The LHC will aim to detect the Higgs boson particle


The Standard Model only has one Higgs "doublet". Although we tend to think of the Higgs boson as one particle, it actually comes in a package of four, explained Dr Martin.
"In the Standard Model, you only see one of them because the other three are absorbed into [other parts of the scheme] such as the W and the Z bosons. There's only one left," he told BBC News.


"So if you want to add another Higgs doublet - you actually have to add four more particles."


The two-Higgs doublet model also ties in with a theory in particle physics known as supersymmetry.


Supersymmetry represents an extension to the Standard Model, in which each particle in the scheme has a more massive "shadow" partner particle.

But so far, physicists have lacked experimental evidence for the existence of these more massive particles.


Evidence for the Higgs and for supersymmetry could be uncovered by the LHC, the world's most powerful "atom smasher" which is housed 100m under the French-Swiss border.


The researchers have published the latest study on the pre-print server arXiv.org; the results were reported by Symmetry magazine. The three researchers are based at Fermilab but are not DZero team members.

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MUFON

How to Digitally Record/Video a UFO sighting:


Como registar digitalmente ou gravar um vídeo de um avistamento de um UFO:




Stabilize the camera on a tripod. If there is no tripod, then set it on top of a stable, flat surface. If that is not possible lean against a wall to stabilize your body and prevent the camera from filming in a shaky, unsteady manner.

Estabilize a camera com um tripé. Se não tiver um tripé, então coloque-a em cima de uma superfície estável. Se não for possível, então encoste-se a uma parede para estabilizar o corpo e evitar que a camera registe de maneira tremida e instável.

Provide visual reference points for comparison. This includes the horizon, treetops, lampposts, houses, and geographical landmarks (i.e., Horsetooth Reservoir, Mt. Adams, etc.) Provide this in the video whenever is appropriate and doesn’t detract from what your focus is, the UFO.

Forneça pontos visuais de referência para comparação. Isso inclui o horizonte, cimo das árvores, postes de iluminação, pontos de referência geográficos (como o Reservatório de Horsetooth, Mone Adams, etc) Forneça esses pontos no vídeo sempre que for apropriado e não se distraia do que é o seu foco, o UFO/a Nave.

Narrate your videotape. Provide details of the date, time, location, and direction (N,S,E,W) you are looking in. Provide your observations on the weather, including approximate temperature, windspeed, any visible cloud cover or noticeable weather anomalies or events. Narrate on the shape, size, color, movements, approximate altitude of the UFO, etc and what it appears to be doing. Also include any unusual physical, psychological or emotional sensations you might have. Narrate any visual reference points on camera so they correlate with what the viewer will see, and thereby will be better able to understand.

Faça a narração do vídeo. Forneça pormenores sobre a data, hora, local e direcção (Norte, Sul, Este, Oeste) que está a observar. Faça observações sobre as condições atmosféricas, incluindo a temperatura aproximada, velocidade do vento, quantidade de nuvens, anomalias ou acontecimentos meteorológicos evidentes. Descreva a forma, o tamanho, a cor, os movimentos, a altitude aproximada onde se encontra o UFO/nave, etc e o que aparenta estar a fazer. Inclua também quaisquer aspectos pouco habituais de sensações físicas, psicológicas ou emocionais que possa ter. Faça a narração de todos os pontos de referência visual que o espectador irá ver e que, deste modo, será capaz de compreender melhor.

Be persistent and consistent. Return to the scene to videotape and record at this same location. If you have been successful once, the UFO sightings may be occurring in this region regularly, perhaps for specific reasons unknown, and you may be successful again. You may also wish to return to the same location at a different time of day (daylight hours) for better orientation and reference. Film just a minute or two under “normal” circumstances for comparison. Write down what you remember immediately after. As soon as you are done recording the experience/event, immediately write down your impressions, memories, thoughts, emotions, etc. so it is on the record in writing. If there were other witnesses, have them independently record their own impressions, thoughts, etc. Include in this exercise any drawings, sketches, or diagrams. Make sure you date and sign your documentation.

Seja persistente e não contraditório. Volte ao local da cena e registe o mesmo local. Se foi bem sucedido uma vez, pode ser que nessa região ocorram avistamentos de UFOs/naves com regularidade, talvez por razões específicas desconhecidas, e talvez possa ser novamente bem sucedido. Pode também desejar voltar ao mesmo lugar a horas diferentes do dia (durante as horas de luz)para ter uma orientação e referência melhor. Filme apenas um ,inuto ou dois em circunstâncias “normais” para ter um termo de comparação. Escreva tudo o que viu imediatamente após o acontecimento. Logo após ter feito o registo da experiência/acontecimento, escreva imediatamente as impressões, memórias, pensamentos, emoções, etc para que fiquem registadas por escrito. Se houver outras testemunhas, peça-lhes para registar independentemente as suas próprias impressões, pensamentos, etc. Inclua quaisquer desenhos, esbolos, diagramas. Certifique-se que data e assina o seu documento/testemunho.

Always be prepared. Have a digital camera or better yet a video camera with you, charged and ready to go, at all times. Make sure you know how to use your camera (and your cell phone video/photo camera) quickly and properly. These events can occur suddenly, unexpectedly, and often quite randomly, so you will need to be prepared.

Esteja sempre preparado, Tenha sempre uma camera digital, melhor ainda, uma camera vídeo consigo, carregada e pronta a usar sempre que necessário. Certifique-se que sabe como lidar com a sua camera (ou com o seu celular/camera fotográfica) rápida e adequadamente. Esses acontecimentos podem acontecer súbita e inesperadamente e, por vezes, acidentalmente, por isso, necessita estar preparado.

Look up. Be prepared. Report. Share.

Olhe para cima, Esteja preparado, Relate, Partilhe.

MUFON.COM

ESOTERIC



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