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Friday, April 30, 2010

April 26 - Cosmic Beacons Sing in Different Octaves‏

Dear Friends,

Paste/click the link if you can't access the links.

http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/pulsar-shine-many-octaves-100426.html

Be Well.

David

Cosmic Beacons Sing in Different Octaves
By Denise Chow
SPACE.com Staff Writer
posted: 26 April 2010
07:16 am ET

New observations from a trio of international telescopes have caught enigmatic radio-emitting stars called pulsars beaming out signals across different octaves, revealing more clues into how these fast-spinning stars generate their cosmic lighthouse emissions.

Using observations from the new European LOFAR telescope, the Effelsberg telescope in Germany and the Lovell telescope in the United Kingdom, astronomers were able to observe six different pulsars, each simultaneously across a range of nearly eight octaves.

"Not only do such observations give us a fantastic handle on understanding the emission of pulsars, they are also a powerful probe of the interstellar gas that is between us and the pulsar," said study team member Ben Stappers of the University of Manchester.

Pulsars are rapidly rotating neutron stars about 12 miles (20 km) across that emit beams of electromagnetic radiation. They are created when massive stars die and collapse in supernova explosions into compressed objects comprised solely of neutrons.

Since roughly the equivalent of the sun's mass is being packed into a tiny space approximately the size of a city, the angular momentum causes the neutron star to spin rapidly. In the process, pulsars emit a ray of light that sweeps around in what has been called a lighthouse effect.

If a pulsar is aligned with Earth, its light beam crosses our planet once per rotation, creating a pulse of light visible at regular intervals ranging from a few milliseconds to seconds, depending on the pulsar's mass.

Even though scientists have been studying pulsars for the past 40 years, the exact mechanisms that generate these intense beams of light remain largely a mystery. Researchers who collaborated on this new study are hoping that will soon change.

The team, which included scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy (MPIfR), monitored six different pulsars across multiple wavelengths. The researchers postulated that the emissions seen at the different wavelengths emerge from different heights above the highly magnetized pulsar surface.

By examining the pulsar emissions at various wavelengths, the astronomers were able to monitor the pulsar magnetosphere (or magnetic atmosphere) from different altitudes, said study team member Kosmas Lazaridis from MPIfR.

"We could see the behavior of the particles following the magnetic field lines at various heights," Lazaridis told SPACE.com. "We observed that higher up, the magnetic field lines open, and the pulse broadens."

This led the astronomers to suggest that pulsar emissions at different radio wavelengths may be created at different heights above a star's magnetic poles. The magnetic field lines that accelerate particles spread apart as one moves further and further away from the pulsar's surface.

Experimental support for the idea came from observational data that found pulses of some pulsars stretching out at longer wavelengths. The shape of the pulsar's emission was seen to evolve quite drastically as a function of wavelength, and maps the spreading of magnetic field lines above the pulsar's magnetic poles.

Further study of pulsars will be made even more accessible once the LOFAR telescope is fully completed in the next year. This higher sensitivity radio telescope will be able to perform more pulsar experiments, while also locating previously-undetected pulsars to study, Lazaridis said.

"This telescope represents a new era, and many more observations of this kind are to come," he said.

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How to Digitally Record/Video a UFO sighting:


Como registar digitalmente ou gravar um vídeo de um avistamento de um UFO:




Stabilize the camera on a tripod. If there is no tripod, then set it on top of a stable, flat surface. If that is not possible lean against a wall to stabilize your body and prevent the camera from filming in a shaky, unsteady manner.

Estabilize a camera com um tripé. Se não tiver um tripé, então coloque-a em cima de uma superfície estável. Se não for possível, então encoste-se a uma parede para estabilizar o corpo e evitar que a camera registe de maneira tremida e instável.

Provide visual reference points for comparison. This includes the horizon, treetops, lampposts, houses, and geographical landmarks (i.e., Horsetooth Reservoir, Mt. Adams, etc.) Provide this in the video whenever is appropriate and doesn’t detract from what your focus is, the UFO.

Forneça pontos visuais de referência para comparação. Isso inclui o horizonte, cimo das árvores, postes de iluminação, pontos de referência geográficos (como o Reservatório de Horsetooth, Mone Adams, etc) Forneça esses pontos no vídeo sempre que for apropriado e não se distraia do que é o seu foco, o UFO/a Nave.

Narrate your videotape. Provide details of the date, time, location, and direction (N,S,E,W) you are looking in. Provide your observations on the weather, including approximate temperature, windspeed, any visible cloud cover or noticeable weather anomalies or events. Narrate on the shape, size, color, movements, approximate altitude of the UFO, etc and what it appears to be doing. Also include any unusual physical, psychological or emotional sensations you might have. Narrate any visual reference points on camera so they correlate with what the viewer will see, and thereby will be better able to understand.

Faça a narração do vídeo. Forneça pormenores sobre a data, hora, local e direcção (Norte, Sul, Este, Oeste) que está a observar. Faça observações sobre as condições atmosféricas, incluindo a temperatura aproximada, velocidade do vento, quantidade de nuvens, anomalias ou acontecimentos meteorológicos evidentes. Descreva a forma, o tamanho, a cor, os movimentos, a altitude aproximada onde se encontra o UFO/nave, etc e o que aparenta estar a fazer. Inclua também quaisquer aspectos pouco habituais de sensações físicas, psicológicas ou emocionais que possa ter. Faça a narração de todos os pontos de referência visual que o espectador irá ver e que, deste modo, será capaz de compreender melhor.

Be persistent and consistent. Return to the scene to videotape and record at this same location. If you have been successful once, the UFO sightings may be occurring in this region regularly, perhaps for specific reasons unknown, and you may be successful again. You may also wish to return to the same location at a different time of day (daylight hours) for better orientation and reference. Film just a minute or two under “normal” circumstances for comparison. Write down what you remember immediately after. As soon as you are done recording the experience/event, immediately write down your impressions, memories, thoughts, emotions, etc. so it is on the record in writing. If there were other witnesses, have them independently record their own impressions, thoughts, etc. Include in this exercise any drawings, sketches, or diagrams. Make sure you date and sign your documentation.

Seja persistente e não contraditório. Volte ao local da cena e registe o mesmo local. Se foi bem sucedido uma vez, pode ser que nessa região ocorram avistamentos de UFOs/naves com regularidade, talvez por razões específicas desconhecidas, e talvez possa ser novamente bem sucedido. Pode também desejar voltar ao mesmo lugar a horas diferentes do dia (durante as horas de luz)para ter uma orientação e referência melhor. Filme apenas um ,inuto ou dois em circunstâncias “normais” para ter um termo de comparação. Escreva tudo o que viu imediatamente após o acontecimento. Logo após ter feito o registo da experiência/acontecimento, escreva imediatamente as impressões, memórias, pensamentos, emoções, etc para que fiquem registadas por escrito. Se houver outras testemunhas, peça-lhes para registar independentemente as suas próprias impressões, pensamentos, etc. Inclua quaisquer desenhos, esbolos, diagramas. Certifique-se que data e assina o seu documento/testemunho.

Always be prepared. Have a digital camera or better yet a video camera with you, charged and ready to go, at all times. Make sure you know how to use your camera (and your cell phone video/photo camera) quickly and properly. These events can occur suddenly, unexpectedly, and often quite randomly, so you will need to be prepared.

Esteja sempre preparado, Tenha sempre uma camera digital, melhor ainda, uma camera vídeo consigo, carregada e pronta a usar sempre que necessário. Certifique-se que sabe como lidar com a sua camera (ou com o seu celular/camera fotográfica) rápida e adequadamente. Esses acontecimentos podem acontecer súbita e inesperadamente e, por vezes, acidentalmente, por isso, necessita estar preparado.

Look up. Be prepared. Report. Share.

Olhe para cima, Esteja preparado, Relate, Partilhe.

MUFON.COM

ESOTERIC



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