Saturday, February 3, 2018

Causes, Symptoms, And Treatment Of Melancholic Depression

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Just updated on April 23, 2019. 


We all experience feelings of melancholia on occasion. When we lose a job or go through a tough breakup, we can go through a period where we feel sad and hopeless. While these feelings are a normal part of being a human, if they persist and begin to affect your everyday life negatively, you may have what is known as melancholic depression.
What Is Melancholic Depression?
Melancholic depression is a subtype of major depressive disorder (MDD), which is characterized by overwhelming and intense feelings of sadness and hopelessness, even when there is seemingly no catalyst. MDD affects every area of life, including work, school, and interpersonal relationships. Often those suffering from depression will lose interests in hobbies and activities that they once enjoyed, and may cut off contact with those closest to them. Those with melancholic depression often completely lose interest in everything for extended periods of time, and these bouts of melancholy often seem to come out of nowhere.
Symptoms Of Melancholic Depression
Overwhelming and persistent feelings of sadness and hopelessness
Those with melancholic depression often lose the ability to feel pleasure. Confronted by feelings of worthlessness and extreme sadness, these feelings are all-encompassing and feel as though they will never end. These symptoms are not brought on by a specific event, but rather come out of nowhere.
Complete loss of interest in activities once enjoyed
Even surrounded by positive events, great friends, and activities in which they once found a lot of pleasure in, those suffering from extreme depression feel no happiness. Events that they once looked forward to are now simply neutral. Even if a day is seemingly 'good,' or if they receive wonderful news, it doesn't do anything to alleviate the feelings of depression.
Thoughts of self-harm
While not a symptom present in everyone diagnosed with depression, those with more extreme symptoms may have thoughts of suicide or self-harm.
Disruption in sleep patterns
Depression can negatively affect sleep patterns, either leaving the person too sad to get out of bed (leading to excessive sleep) or disrupting sleep entirely (leading to a lack of sleep).
Significant weight loss
Loss of interest in most things includes lack of interest in food. Often those with melancholic depression will lose their appetite, leading to significant weight loss.
Difficulty concentrating, lack of energy, and inability to make decisions
Fatigue is a very common symptom, and even the most simple tasks can seem extremely difficult. It can also be difficult to concentrate on anything or make any decisions because there doesn't seem to be any reason to move forward.
Feelings of guilt
Another symptom that differentiates melancholic depression from major depressive disorder is excessive feelings of guilt. These feelings of guilt are not brought on by a certain situation or event, but rather are linked to past experiences or the worry of doing something wrong in the future.
Symptoms worse in the morning
As opposed to major depressive disorder, melancholic depression is characterized by symptoms that are worse in the mornings. This may lead to difficulty getting out of bed and an inability to face the day ahead. Symptoms may begin to recede slightly as the days go on.
What Causes Melancholic Depression?
The important thing to note is that melancholic depression isn't caused by a specific traumatic event, although a traumatic event can trigger depression that may have been lying dormant. Biological factors cause this type of depression; in some cases, it may have been inherited from parents. Those with other mental disorders where psychotic symptoms are present are thought to be more susceptible to this type of depression, as well as elderly patients with dementia.
How Is Melancholic Depression Diagnosed?
As opposed to physical illnesses, diagnosing mental illnesses isn't as clear-cut of a process. Doctors can't simply take an x-ray, analyze a blood sample or see any physical problems. Instead, they rely on a handful of questions that will allow them to determine whether the patient is truly depressed or is simply going through a difficult time.
The patient will be required to talk about a typical day - their behaviors, emotions, thoughts and overall lifestyle. The doctor will try to dig deeper, asking if they have had experienced any traumatic events either recently or in the past that may be contributing to feelings of melancholy. Gathering information on the history of mental illnesses in the family will also be helpful since mental illnesses are often hereditary.
To be diagnosed with melancholic depression, you must be exhibiting at least five of the above symptoms for at least two weeks straight. Before making a diagnosis, a doctor will try to rule out any physical illnesses that may be indirectly causing feelings of depression.
How Is Melancholic Depression Treated?
Medication - Many patients diagnosed with melancholic depression will be put on antidepressants. This help regulate the levels of serotonin and dopamine in the brain, bringing the mind back to a manageable state. Antidepressants typically take between 2-4 weeks before they begin to work, and during that time suicidal thoughts may increase before the emotions are regulated. It's important to stay in contact with your doctor and let them know if you feel as though suicidal thoughts have increased. It is also important to not stop taking antidepressants even when you begin to feel better until your doctor approves and helps you reduce your dosage gradually.
There are many different types of antidepressants, and it may take a bit of time for a doctor to find the right dosage and medication for you.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy - Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) acknowledges that the way we think and behave affects our everyday life. It pinpoints negative thought patterns and works to change them back into more positive thought patterns. A therapist will help you take the steps necessary to restructure the way you think. Since melancholic depression is so severe, CBT is often combined with medication or other types of psychological treatment.
Interpersonal Therapy - Interpersonal Therapy (IPT) focuses on your interpersonal relationships, and pinpoints areas that may be exacerbating your symptoms of depression. This type of therapy aims to help patients improve their relationships or alter their expectations of them. IPT also aims to help develop a stronger support network to deal with symptoms of depression more easily.
Learning to manage melancholic depression is a long process, but there is hope. If a loved one of yours is suffering from depression, it's important to convince them to get the help they need as soon as possible. While it may be a long road to recovery, the combination of medication, psychological treatment, and a strong support system can help alleviate symptoms and help them get on the path to a happier, healthier life. It's very important to remain a supportive confidante throughout the entire process; people suffering from depression often feel worthless, and it's important to remind them that they are not alone. Acknowledging that there is a problem is the first step, and making that initial appointment is the most difficult part. Afterwards, everything else is a step in the right direction.
If you feel as though you are suffering from melancholic depression, seek help today. The trained therapists at BetterHelp are available 24/7 to discuss your symptoms and provide treatment, and there is no need to leave the comfort of your own home. You have the opportunity to remain anonymous, talk with a professional that you feel comfortable with, and can revolve sessions around your schedule. Don't wait to get help - the sooner you contact a trained professional, the sooner you will be on the path to a healthier, happier life.
If you or a loved one are having thoughts of suicide, don't wait to hear back from a therapist - call an emergency center immediately.

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Thursday, February 1, 2018

Killer whale ‘repeats human speech’ - study (AUDIO, POLL)

Killer whale ‘repeats human speech’ - study (AUDIO, POLL)

Killer whale ‘repeats human speech’ - study (AUDIO, POLL)
Killer whales have for the first time been recorded apparently imitating human speech. Audio released in a new study captured an orca mimicking words such as “hello” and “bye bye.”
A new study, published Wednesday in the journal ‘Proceedings of the Royal Society B’ and led by the Complutense University of Madrid, found orcas have the ability to learn and mimic human language.
Not just that, researchers also found the creatures can copy unfamiliar sounds produced by other orcas (like blowing a raspberry, for instance).
History will record that in the second decade of the third millennium, a killer whale uttered the word “hello” to a human,” wrote Luke Rendell, Lecturer in Biology at the University of St Andrews, which also assisted in the study.
While other animals like dolphins, bats, seals, elephants and parrots have already been found to mimic human speech, Rendell says a whale repeating “hello” and other phrases meaningless to the mammals proves “they are capable of one of the core building blocks of language development in humans: vocal learning.”
Although the ability to copy sounds of individuals of the same species is widespread in birds, it is remarkably rare in mammals and, among primates, is practically exclusive to humans,” read the press release announcing the study.
The team tested a 14-year-old female orca called Wilkie with multiple sounds in different scenarios, including using loudspeakers. Each time the whale’s response was measured with forensic acoustic analysis and Wilkie was reportedly often found to repeat the sound back on the first try.
The team says this display of imitation helps explain how pods of wild killer whales create their own dialect, and how captive whales change their calls to fit in with their new group when moved to different locations.
The evidence that killer whales can show vocal learning provides us with a missing piece of understanding about their lives in the wild,” Rendell wrote.
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Click upon the circle after the small square for captions


How to Digitally Record/Video a UFO sighting:

Como registar digitalmente ou gravar um vídeo de um avistamento de um UFO:

Stabilize the camera on a tripod. If there is no tripod, then set it on top of a stable, flat surface. If that is not possible lean against a wall to stabilize your body and prevent the camera from filming in a shaky, unsteady manner.

Estabilize a camera com um tripé. Se não tiver um tripé, então coloque-a em cima de uma superfície estável. Se não for possível, então encoste-se a uma parede para estabilizar o corpo e evitar que a camera registe de maneira tremida e instável.

Provide visual reference points for comparison. This includes the horizon, treetops, lampposts, houses, and geographical landmarks (i.e., Horsetooth Reservoir, Mt. Adams, etc.) Provide this in the video whenever is appropriate and doesn’t detract from what your focus is, the UFO.

Forneça pontos visuais de referência para comparação. Isso inclui o horizonte, cimo das árvores, postes de iluminação, pontos de referência geográficos (como o Reservatório de Horsetooth, Mone Adams, etc) Forneça esses pontos no vídeo sempre que for apropriado e não se distraia do que é o seu foco, o UFO/a Nave.

Narrate your videotape. Provide details of the date, time, location, and direction (N,S,E,W) you are looking in. Provide your observations on the weather, including approximate temperature, windspeed, any visible cloud cover or noticeable weather anomalies or events. Narrate on the shape, size, color, movements, approximate altitude of the UFO, etc and what it appears to be doing. Also include any unusual physical, psychological or emotional sensations you might have. Narrate any visual reference points on camera so they correlate with what the viewer will see, and thereby will be better able to understand.

Faça a narração do vídeo. Forneça pormenores sobre a data, hora, local e direcção (Norte, Sul, Este, Oeste) que está a observar. Faça observações sobre as condições atmosféricas, incluindo a temperatura aproximada, velocidade do vento, quantidade de nuvens, anomalias ou acontecimentos meteorológicos evidentes. Descreva a forma, o tamanho, a cor, os movimentos, a altitude aproximada onde se encontra o UFO/nave, etc e o que aparenta estar a fazer. Inclua também quaisquer aspectos pouco habituais de sensações físicas, psicológicas ou emocionais que possa ter. Faça a narração de todos os pontos de referência visual que o espectador irá ver e que, deste modo, será capaz de compreender melhor.

Be persistent and consistent. Return to the scene to videotape and record at this same location. If you have been successful once, the UFO sightings may be occurring in this region regularly, perhaps for specific reasons unknown, and you may be successful again. You may also wish to return to the same location at a different time of day (daylight hours) for better orientation and reference. Film just a minute or two under “normal” circumstances for comparison. Write down what you remember immediately after. As soon as you are done recording the experience/event, immediately write down your impressions, memories, thoughts, emotions, etc. so it is on the record in writing. If there were other witnesses, have them independently record their own impressions, thoughts, etc. Include in this exercise any drawings, sketches, or diagrams. Make sure you date and sign your documentation.

Seja persistente e não contraditório. Volte ao local da cena e registe o mesmo local. Se foi bem sucedido uma vez, pode ser que nessa região ocorram avistamentos de UFOs/naves com regularidade, talvez por razões específicas desconhecidas, e talvez possa ser novamente bem sucedido. Pode também desejar voltar ao mesmo lugar a horas diferentes do dia (durante as horas de luz)para ter uma orientação e referência melhor. Filme apenas um ,inuto ou dois em circunstâncias “normais” para ter um termo de comparação. Escreva tudo o que viu imediatamente após o acontecimento. Logo após ter feito o registo da experiência/acontecimento, escreva imediatamente as impressões, memórias, pensamentos, emoções, etc para que fiquem registadas por escrito. Se houver outras testemunhas, peça-lhes para registar independentemente as suas próprias impressões, pensamentos, etc. Inclua quaisquer desenhos, esbolos, diagramas. Certifique-se que data e assina o seu documento/testemunho.

Always be prepared. Have a digital camera or better yet a video camera with you, charged and ready to go, at all times. Make sure you know how to use your camera (and your cell phone video/photo camera) quickly and properly. These events can occur suddenly, unexpectedly, and often quite randomly, so you will need to be prepared.

Esteja sempre preparado, Tenha sempre uma camera digital, melhor ainda, uma camera vídeo consigo, carregada e pronta a usar sempre que necessário. Certifique-se que sabe como lidar com a sua camera (ou com o seu celular/camera fotográfica) rápida e adequadamente. Esses acontecimentos podem acontecer súbita e inesperadamente e, por vezes, acidentalmente, por isso, necessita estar preparado.

Look up. Be prepared. Report. Share.

Olhe para cima, Esteja preparado, Relate, Partilhe.



Pf., clique no símbolo do YouTube e depois no quadrado pequeno, em baixo, ao lado direito para obter as legendas CC, e escolha PORTUGUÊS

埋め込み画像 4埋め込み画像 5

What time is Around the World?


AND YOU AND I - click image



NGC - UFO's in EUROPE (Porugal included)

FEBRUARY 7, 2013 - 7:00PM EST

FEBRUARY 7, 2013 - 7:00PM EST