Monday, March 6, 2017

Astronomers: Volcanoes Can Make Frozen Alien Worlds Habitable for Humans

    Smoke rises from the Barren Island volcano, 135 kilometers (84 miles) east of Port Blair, India on Sunday, March 25, 2007

    Astronomers: Volcanoes Can Make Frozen Alien Worlds Habitable for Humans

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    Life can evolve, even on icy alien worlds, according to a new study from Cornell University. If a planet has hydrogen-spewing volcanoes to warm the atmosphere, the study posits, it could have the right conditions to become habitable for life, even if it is outside the ‘habitable zone’ of its star.

    The habitable zone is the distance from a star required by a planet to support liquid water. Too close to a star and the heat will only allow water to exist as vapor (such is the case for Mercury and Venus) while too far away and the water will freeze (Jupiter and the other gas giants are in this category, although without a rocky surface they are not thought to be able to support Earth-like life.) For celestial bodies orbiting our Sun, Earth, Mars, and the dwarf planet Ceres are in the habitable zone.

    TRAPPIST-1, a red dwarf star with seven Earth-like planets in orbit, has three in its habitable zone: 1e, 1f, and 1g. The planets 1a and 1b likely once had water that has since evaporated, while 1c has a long-shot chance at liquid water in a thin sliver on its surface.
    But the most mysterious of these worlds is TRAPPIST-1h, the farthest from the star. According to the Cornell team, hydrogen volcanoes could outpace the escape of hydrogen gas from 1h's atmosphere and that gas could then presumably take liquid form, allowing for life.
    The Cornell team ran a simulation to see how large a habitable zone can be, assuming that planets are covered in hydrogen-rich volcanoes. They found that volcanic hydrogen could increase the habitable zone's reach by as much as 60 percent.
    "Our volcanic-hydrogen habitable zone is different, because so long as volcanism is intense enough, it can outpace the rate at which hydrogen escapes into space," lead author Ramses Ramirez, a Cornell research associate, wrote in an email to He added that while 1h was just outside the volcanic hydrogen habitable zone, "it is really close." If the planet was only slightly more volcanic than the models indicate, then 1h could be habitable.
    There are many additional factors at work to determine a planet's habitability. Mars has plenty of volcanoes, but only trace amounts of hydrogen remain in its atmosphere. Eons ago, hydrogen gas escaped Mars' thin atmosphere and left the planet dry and lifeless.
    Some theories hold that early Earth had a high quantity of hydrogen gas in its atmosphere. Hydrogen atoms are promiscuous, bonding freely with whatever is available. In modern times, Earth's hydrogen lies on and below the surface in the form of water.
    But TRAPPIST-1's worlds are very young themselves, some 4-billion years younger than Earth. If Ramirez's theory holds true, then a young world with a hydrogen-rich atmosphere may one day be watery and temperate, similar to the Earth. 
    Little information is available about the atmospheres of TRAPPIST-1's planets, as existing telescopes are not powerful enough to study them. Future telescopes, like NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (set to launch in 2018) and the ESA's European Extremely Large Telescope (2024) should shed more light on this matter.
    These telescopes will also search for other "biosignature" gases like oxygen and methane. Although they are no guarantee of life, the presence of these gases would be an excellent clue. Ramirez added that volcanic planets tend to have thicker, "puffier" atmospheres that are easier to study. "Biosignatures would be easier to detect in these hydrogen-rich atmospheres," he said.

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    How to Digitally Record/Video a UFO sighting:

    Como registar digitalmente ou gravar um vídeo de um avistamento de um UFO:

    Stabilize the camera on a tripod. If there is no tripod, then set it on top of a stable, flat surface. If that is not possible lean against a wall to stabilize your body and prevent the camera from filming in a shaky, unsteady manner.

    Estabilize a camera com um tripé. Se não tiver um tripé, então coloque-a em cima de uma superfície estável. Se não for possível, então encoste-se a uma parede para estabilizar o corpo e evitar que a camera registe de maneira tremida e instável.

    Provide visual reference points for comparison. This includes the horizon, treetops, lampposts, houses, and geographical landmarks (i.e., Horsetooth Reservoir, Mt. Adams, etc.) Provide this in the video whenever is appropriate and doesn’t detract from what your focus is, the UFO.

    Forneça pontos visuais de referência para comparação. Isso inclui o horizonte, cimo das árvores, postes de iluminação, pontos de referência geográficos (como o Reservatório de Horsetooth, Mone Adams, etc) Forneça esses pontos no vídeo sempre que for apropriado e não se distraia do que é o seu foco, o UFO/a Nave.

    Narrate your videotape. Provide details of the date, time, location, and direction (N,S,E,W) you are looking in. Provide your observations on the weather, including approximate temperature, windspeed, any visible cloud cover or noticeable weather anomalies or events. Narrate on the shape, size, color, movements, approximate altitude of the UFO, etc and what it appears to be doing. Also include any unusual physical, psychological or emotional sensations you might have. Narrate any visual reference points on camera so they correlate with what the viewer will see, and thereby will be better able to understand.

    Faça a narração do vídeo. Forneça pormenores sobre a data, hora, local e direcção (Norte, Sul, Este, Oeste) que está a observar. Faça observações sobre as condições atmosféricas, incluindo a temperatura aproximada, velocidade do vento, quantidade de nuvens, anomalias ou acontecimentos meteorológicos evidentes. Descreva a forma, o tamanho, a cor, os movimentos, a altitude aproximada onde se encontra o UFO/nave, etc e o que aparenta estar a fazer. Inclua também quaisquer aspectos pouco habituais de sensações físicas, psicológicas ou emocionais que possa ter. Faça a narração de todos os pontos de referência visual que o espectador irá ver e que, deste modo, será capaz de compreender melhor.

    Be persistent and consistent. Return to the scene to videotape and record at this same location. If you have been successful once, the UFO sightings may be occurring in this region regularly, perhaps for specific reasons unknown, and you may be successful again. You may also wish to return to the same location at a different time of day (daylight hours) for better orientation and reference. Film just a minute or two under “normal” circumstances for comparison. Write down what you remember immediately after. As soon as you are done recording the experience/event, immediately write down your impressions, memories, thoughts, emotions, etc. so it is on the record in writing. If there were other witnesses, have them independently record their own impressions, thoughts, etc. Include in this exercise any drawings, sketches, or diagrams. Make sure you date and sign your documentation.

    Seja persistente e não contraditório. Volte ao local da cena e registe o mesmo local. Se foi bem sucedido uma vez, pode ser que nessa região ocorram avistamentos de UFOs/naves com regularidade, talvez por razões específicas desconhecidas, e talvez possa ser novamente bem sucedido. Pode também desejar voltar ao mesmo lugar a horas diferentes do dia (durante as horas de luz)para ter uma orientação e referência melhor. Filme apenas um ,inuto ou dois em circunstâncias “normais” para ter um termo de comparação. Escreva tudo o que viu imediatamente após o acontecimento. Logo após ter feito o registo da experiência/acontecimento, escreva imediatamente as impressões, memórias, pensamentos, emoções, etc para que fiquem registadas por escrito. Se houver outras testemunhas, peça-lhes para registar independentemente as suas próprias impressões, pensamentos, etc. Inclua quaisquer desenhos, esbolos, diagramas. Certifique-se que data e assina o seu documento/testemunho.

    Always be prepared. Have a digital camera or better yet a video camera with you, charged and ready to go, at all times. Make sure you know how to use your camera (and your cell phone video/photo camera) quickly and properly. These events can occur suddenly, unexpectedly, and often quite randomly, so you will need to be prepared.

    Esteja sempre preparado, Tenha sempre uma camera digital, melhor ainda, uma camera vídeo consigo, carregada e pronta a usar sempre que necessário. Certifique-se que sabe como lidar com a sua camera (ou com o seu celular/camera fotográfica) rápida e adequadamente. Esses acontecimentos podem acontecer súbita e inesperadamente e, por vezes, acidentalmente, por isso, necessita estar preparado.

    Look up. Be prepared. Report. Share.

    Olhe para cima, Esteja preparado, Relate, Partilhe.



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