Monday, March 6, 2017

Researchers Say It’s Possible to Build a Self-Replicating DNA Supercomputer


    A team of computer scientists from the University of Manchester has suggested that it is possible to build a DNA-based computer that can replicate itself to store and process unimaginable quantities of information. A single such machine 'could potentially utilize more processors than all the electronic computers in the world combined.'

    All existing computers, from the building-sized Sunway Taihulight supercomputer in China to the device you are using to read this article, are based on the principles of a Turing machine. Named for Manchester's own Dr. Alan Turing, Turing machines are theoretical devices that run on a set of strict instructions. A typical deterministic Turing machine (DTM) might have a direction: "If my state is A, then perform task 1."

    The DNA computer would however be a non-deterministic universal Turing Machine (NUTM). An NUTM is a Turing machine that can solve multiple tasks at once that a DTM can only solve one at a time. In the example above, an NUTM might have the direction: "If my state is A, then perform tasks 1-1,000,000,000" thus performing a trillion tasks simultaneously. 
    Imagine a computer program designed to solve a maze. The program comes to a fork in the road. An ordinary electronic computer chooses one path and sees where it leads, trying another if that first path fails to get it out of the maze. An NUTM can go down every path simultaneously by replicating itself, thus solving the maze far more quickly.
    The problem is, of course, how to build a computer that can rapidly replicate itself. Manchester's solution is to build a processor out of DNA molecules, which "is an excellent medium for information processing and storage."
    "It is very stable, as the sequencing of ancient DNA demonstrates. It can also reliably be copied, and many genes have remained virtually unchanged for billions of years," the study said, adding that, "As DNA molecules are very small, a desktop computer could potentially utilise more processors than all the electronic computers in the world combined — and therefore outperform the world's current fastest supercomputer, while consuming a tiny fraction of its energy."
    Team member Ross King said that while DNA computers were first proposed in the 1990s, the Manchester group is the first to demonstrate that such a machine is feasible. They claim that Thue, a theoretical programming language written in 2000 by John Colagioia, can convert existing computers into NUTMs. 
    NUTMs should not be confused with quantum computers. Quantum computers exploit quantum mechanics to process at a much faster rate than electronic computers. Quantum computers are probabilistic Turing machines (PTM) which might say: 'if my state is A, then perform task 1 90 percent of the time and task 2 10 percent of the time." Quantum computers would be much faster than electronic computers, but while theoretical quantum computers are in the works in laboratories all over the world, no one has found a way to build one that functions in the real world.
    The University of Manchester team claims that their NUTM model would be superior to quantum computing. "Quantum computers are an exciting other form of computer, and they can also follow both paths in a maze, but only if the maze has certain symmetries, which greatly limits their use," said King. 
    More importantly, quantum computers would still rely on silicon chips, just like electronic computers. As small as those chips can get, they are unlikely to become smaller than a single DNA molecule. The less space a processor takes up, the more you can fit into one computer.
    Humanity is closer to quantum computers than to those that are DNA-based. But whether the notion of a computer made from DNA excites or terrifies you, it is worth remembering that we humans run on a biocomputer. It's called a brain.

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    How to Digitally Record/Video a UFO sighting:

    Como registar digitalmente ou gravar um vídeo de um avistamento de um UFO:

    Stabilize the camera on a tripod. If there is no tripod, then set it on top of a stable, flat surface. If that is not possible lean against a wall to stabilize your body and prevent the camera from filming in a shaky, unsteady manner.

    Estabilize a camera com um tripé. Se não tiver um tripé, então coloque-a em cima de uma superfície estável. Se não for possível, então encoste-se a uma parede para estabilizar o corpo e evitar que a camera registe de maneira tremida e instável.

    Provide visual reference points for comparison. This includes the horizon, treetops, lampposts, houses, and geographical landmarks (i.e., Horsetooth Reservoir, Mt. Adams, etc.) Provide this in the video whenever is appropriate and doesn’t detract from what your focus is, the UFO.

    Forneça pontos visuais de referência para comparação. Isso inclui o horizonte, cimo das árvores, postes de iluminação, pontos de referência geográficos (como o Reservatório de Horsetooth, Mone Adams, etc) Forneça esses pontos no vídeo sempre que for apropriado e não se distraia do que é o seu foco, o UFO/a Nave.

    Narrate your videotape. Provide details of the date, time, location, and direction (N,S,E,W) you are looking in. Provide your observations on the weather, including approximate temperature, windspeed, any visible cloud cover or noticeable weather anomalies or events. Narrate on the shape, size, color, movements, approximate altitude of the UFO, etc and what it appears to be doing. Also include any unusual physical, psychological or emotional sensations you might have. Narrate any visual reference points on camera so they correlate with what the viewer will see, and thereby will be better able to understand.

    Faça a narração do vídeo. Forneça pormenores sobre a data, hora, local e direcção (Norte, Sul, Este, Oeste) que está a observar. Faça observações sobre as condições atmosféricas, incluindo a temperatura aproximada, velocidade do vento, quantidade de nuvens, anomalias ou acontecimentos meteorológicos evidentes. Descreva a forma, o tamanho, a cor, os movimentos, a altitude aproximada onde se encontra o UFO/nave, etc e o que aparenta estar a fazer. Inclua também quaisquer aspectos pouco habituais de sensações físicas, psicológicas ou emocionais que possa ter. Faça a narração de todos os pontos de referência visual que o espectador irá ver e que, deste modo, será capaz de compreender melhor.

    Be persistent and consistent. Return to the scene to videotape and record at this same location. If you have been successful once, the UFO sightings may be occurring in this region regularly, perhaps for specific reasons unknown, and you may be successful again. You may also wish to return to the same location at a different time of day (daylight hours) for better orientation and reference. Film just a minute or two under “normal” circumstances for comparison. Write down what you remember immediately after. As soon as you are done recording the experience/event, immediately write down your impressions, memories, thoughts, emotions, etc. so it is on the record in writing. If there were other witnesses, have them independently record their own impressions, thoughts, etc. Include in this exercise any drawings, sketches, or diagrams. Make sure you date and sign your documentation.

    Seja persistente e não contraditório. Volte ao local da cena e registe o mesmo local. Se foi bem sucedido uma vez, pode ser que nessa região ocorram avistamentos de UFOs/naves com regularidade, talvez por razões específicas desconhecidas, e talvez possa ser novamente bem sucedido. Pode também desejar voltar ao mesmo lugar a horas diferentes do dia (durante as horas de luz)para ter uma orientação e referência melhor. Filme apenas um ,inuto ou dois em circunstâncias “normais” para ter um termo de comparação. Escreva tudo o que viu imediatamente após o acontecimento. Logo após ter feito o registo da experiência/acontecimento, escreva imediatamente as impressões, memórias, pensamentos, emoções, etc para que fiquem registadas por escrito. Se houver outras testemunhas, peça-lhes para registar independentemente as suas próprias impressões, pensamentos, etc. Inclua quaisquer desenhos, esbolos, diagramas. Certifique-se que data e assina o seu documento/testemunho.

    Always be prepared. Have a digital camera or better yet a video camera with you, charged and ready to go, at all times. Make sure you know how to use your camera (and your cell phone video/photo camera) quickly and properly. These events can occur suddenly, unexpectedly, and often quite randomly, so you will need to be prepared.

    Esteja sempre preparado, Tenha sempre uma camera digital, melhor ainda, uma camera vídeo consigo, carregada e pronta a usar sempre que necessário. Certifique-se que sabe como lidar com a sua camera (ou com o seu celular/camera fotográfica) rápida e adequadamente. Esses acontecimentos podem acontecer súbita e inesperadamente e, por vezes, acidentalmente, por isso, necessita estar preparado.

    Look up. Be prepared. Report. Share.

    Olhe para cima, Esteja preparado, Relate, Partilhe.



    Pf., clique no símbolo do YouTube e depois no quadrado pequeno, em baixo, ao lado direito para obter as legendas CC, e escolha PORTUGUÊS

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    What time is Around the World?


    AND YOU AND I - click image



    NGC - UFO's in EUROPE (Porugal included)

    FEBRUARY 7, 2013 - 7:00PM EST

    FEBRUARY 7, 2013 - 7:00PM EST
    T O R O N T O