Saturday, January 9, 2010

Jan. 8. - “Golden ratio” hints at hidden atomic symmetry‏

Dear Friends,

Paste the link if you don't receive the image.

Be Well.


“Golden ratio” hints at hidden atomic symmetry

Jan. 7, 2010
Courtesy Helmholtz Association
of German Research Centres
and World Science staff

A hith­er­to un­dis­cov­ered sym­me­try can be found in sol­id mat­ter at very small scales, phys­i­cists are re­port­ing. The sym­me­try, they say, in­volves the gold­en ra­tio fa­mous from art and ar­chi­tec­ture.

Par­t­i­cles at the atom­ic, or quan­tum, scale be­have in un­ex­pected and seem­ingly irra­t­ional ways. New prop­er­ties emerge that stem from an ef­fect known as Hei­sen­berg’s Un­cer­tain­ty Prin­ci­ple.

Di­a­gram of the neu­tron scat­ter­ing tech­nique used in the ex­per­i­ments. The ar­rows rep­re­sent the spin ax­es of par­t­i­cles in the linked chain of atoms. A mag­net­ic field is used to tune the chains of spins to a "quantum critical" state. The res­o­nant modes (“notes”) are de­tected by scat­ter­ing neu­trons, which are beamed at the set­up in the di­rec­tion shown. While pass­ing through the sys­tem, these scat­ter with the char­ac­ter­is­tic fre­quen­cies of the spin chains. (Cred­it: Ten­nan­t/HZB)

The re­search­ers in the new study fo­cused on the mag­net­ic ma­te­ri­al co­balt nio­bate. It con­sists of linked mag­net­ic at­oms, which form chains like a very thin ba­r mag­net, but only one at­om wide. They are con­sid­ered a use­ful mod­el for de­scrib­ing mag­netism at ti­ny scales in sol­id state mat­ter.

When a mag­net­ic field is ap­plied to the chain at right an­gles to an aligned “spin” of its par­t­i­cles, the mag­net­ic chain trans­forms in­to a new state called quan­tum crit­i­cal, ac­cord­ing to the phys­i­cists. This can be thought of as a quan­tum ver­sion of a frac­tal pat­tern, a pat­tern that looks the same at any scale.

Such a state is al­so a type of “quan­tum un­cer­tain” or “Schrödinger cat” state, in which cer­tain prop­er­ties of the par­t­i­cles are in­de­ter­mi­nate, said Al­an Ten­nant of the Helm­holtz Cen­ter Ber­lin for Ma­te­ri­als and En­er­gy, one of the re­search­ers.

By tun­ing the sys­tem the re­search­ers found that the chain of at­oms acts like a gui­tar string whose ten­sion comes from in­ter­ac­tion be­tween the spins of the con­stit­u­ent par­t­i­cles. “For these in­ter­ac­tions we found a se­ries,” or “scale,” of “res­o­nant notes,” said Radu Coldea of Ox­ford Uni­vers­ity, who led the re­search.

“The first two notes show a per­fect rela­t­ion­ship with each oth­er,” added Col­dea, prin­ci­ple au­thor of a pa­per on the find­ings to ap­pear in the Jan. 8 is­sue of the re­search jour­nal Sci­ence.

The “pitch” of these notes, or their fre­quen­cies of vibra­t­ion, are in a ra­tio of about 1.618, the same “the gold­en ra­tio fa­mous from art and ar­chi­tec­ture,” he con­tin­ued. If two num­bers are re­lat­ed by the gold­en ra­tio, their sum is al­so re­lat­ed to the larg­er of them by the gold­en ra­tio. In oth­er words, if A di­vid­ed by B is that spe­cial num­ber, then A+B di­vid­ed by A is the same num­ber.

Artists and ar­chi­tects have have used the gold­en ra­tio for cen­turies—for ex­am­ple, rectan­gles 1.618 times high­er than they are wide—be­cause it sup­posedly pro­vides es­thet­ic­ally pleas­ing forms. The gold­en ra­tio is irra­t­ional, like pi, mean­ing its dec­i­mals go on for­ev­er.

In the “quan­tum un­cer­tain” state of mat­ter, the ra­tio “re­flects a beau­ti­ful prop­er­ty of the quan­tum sys­tem – a hid­den sym­me­try,” Col­dea said. It is “ac­tually quite a spe­cial one called E8 by math­e­mati­cians, and this is its first ob­serva­t­ion in a ma­te­ri­al.” The find­ings dra­mat­ic­ally il­lus­trate how math­e­mat­i­cal the­o­ries de­vel­oped for par­t­i­cle phys­ics may find ap­plica­t­ion in sci­ence at the nano­scale—the scale of a few at­oms—and ul­ti­mately in fu­ture tech­nol­o­gy, he added.

“Such dis­cov­er­ies are lead­ing phys­i­cists to spec­u­late that the quan­tum, atom­ic- scale world may have its own un­der­ly­ing or­der,” said Ten­nant. “Si­m­i­lar sur­prises may await re­search­ers in oth­er ma­te­ri­als in the quan­tum crit­i­cal state.”

The re­search­ers reached their re­sults by us­ing a spe­cial probe called neu­tron scat­ter­ing that al­lows phys­i­cists to see the atom­ic-scale vibra­t­ions of a sys­tem. “Us­ing neu­tron scat­ter­ing gives us un­ri­valled in­sight in­to how dif­fer­ent the quan­tum world can be from the every­day,” said re­searcher Elisa Wheel­er, who has worked at both Ox­ford and the Ber­lin cen­ter on the proj­ect.

No comments:

Post a Comment



Click upon the circle after the small square for captions


How to Digitally Record/Video a UFO sighting:

Como registar digitalmente ou gravar um vídeo de um avistamento de um UFO:

Stabilize the camera on a tripod. If there is no tripod, then set it on top of a stable, flat surface. If that is not possible lean against a wall to stabilize your body and prevent the camera from filming in a shaky, unsteady manner.

Estabilize a camera com um tripé. Se não tiver um tripé, então coloque-a em cima de uma superfície estável. Se não for possível, então encoste-se a uma parede para estabilizar o corpo e evitar que a camera registe de maneira tremida e instável.

Provide visual reference points for comparison. This includes the horizon, treetops, lampposts, houses, and geographical landmarks (i.e., Horsetooth Reservoir, Mt. Adams, etc.) Provide this in the video whenever is appropriate and doesn’t detract from what your focus is, the UFO.

Forneça pontos visuais de referência para comparação. Isso inclui o horizonte, cimo das árvores, postes de iluminação, pontos de referência geográficos (como o Reservatório de Horsetooth, Mone Adams, etc) Forneça esses pontos no vídeo sempre que for apropriado e não se distraia do que é o seu foco, o UFO/a Nave.

Narrate your videotape. Provide details of the date, time, location, and direction (N,S,E,W) you are looking in. Provide your observations on the weather, including approximate temperature, windspeed, any visible cloud cover or noticeable weather anomalies or events. Narrate on the shape, size, color, movements, approximate altitude of the UFO, etc and what it appears to be doing. Also include any unusual physical, psychological or emotional sensations you might have. Narrate any visual reference points on camera so they correlate with what the viewer will see, and thereby will be better able to understand.

Faça a narração do vídeo. Forneça pormenores sobre a data, hora, local e direcção (Norte, Sul, Este, Oeste) que está a observar. Faça observações sobre as condições atmosféricas, incluindo a temperatura aproximada, velocidade do vento, quantidade de nuvens, anomalias ou acontecimentos meteorológicos evidentes. Descreva a forma, o tamanho, a cor, os movimentos, a altitude aproximada onde se encontra o UFO/nave, etc e o que aparenta estar a fazer. Inclua também quaisquer aspectos pouco habituais de sensações físicas, psicológicas ou emocionais que possa ter. Faça a narração de todos os pontos de referência visual que o espectador irá ver e que, deste modo, será capaz de compreender melhor.

Be persistent and consistent. Return to the scene to videotape and record at this same location. If you have been successful once, the UFO sightings may be occurring in this region regularly, perhaps for specific reasons unknown, and you may be successful again. You may also wish to return to the same location at a different time of day (daylight hours) for better orientation and reference. Film just a minute or two under “normal” circumstances for comparison. Write down what you remember immediately after. As soon as you are done recording the experience/event, immediately write down your impressions, memories, thoughts, emotions, etc. so it is on the record in writing. If there were other witnesses, have them independently record their own impressions, thoughts, etc. Include in this exercise any drawings, sketches, or diagrams. Make sure you date and sign your documentation.

Seja persistente e não contraditório. Volte ao local da cena e registe o mesmo local. Se foi bem sucedido uma vez, pode ser que nessa região ocorram avistamentos de UFOs/naves com regularidade, talvez por razões específicas desconhecidas, e talvez possa ser novamente bem sucedido. Pode também desejar voltar ao mesmo lugar a horas diferentes do dia (durante as horas de luz)para ter uma orientação e referência melhor. Filme apenas um ,inuto ou dois em circunstâncias “normais” para ter um termo de comparação. Escreva tudo o que viu imediatamente após o acontecimento. Logo após ter feito o registo da experiência/acontecimento, escreva imediatamente as impressões, memórias, pensamentos, emoções, etc para que fiquem registadas por escrito. Se houver outras testemunhas, peça-lhes para registar independentemente as suas próprias impressões, pensamentos, etc. Inclua quaisquer desenhos, esbolos, diagramas. Certifique-se que data e assina o seu documento/testemunho.

Always be prepared. Have a digital camera or better yet a video camera with you, charged and ready to go, at all times. Make sure you know how to use your camera (and your cell phone video/photo camera) quickly and properly. These events can occur suddenly, unexpectedly, and often quite randomly, so you will need to be prepared.

Esteja sempre preparado, Tenha sempre uma camera digital, melhor ainda, uma camera vídeo consigo, carregada e pronta a usar sempre que necessário. Certifique-se que sabe como lidar com a sua camera (ou com o seu celular/camera fotográfica) rápida e adequadamente. Esses acontecimentos podem acontecer súbita e inesperadamente e, por vezes, acidentalmente, por isso, necessita estar preparado.

Look up. Be prepared. Report. Share.

Olhe para cima, Esteja preparado, Relate, Partilhe.



Pf., clique no símbolo do YouTube e depois no quadrado pequeno, em baixo, ao lado direito para obter as legendas CC, e escolha PORTUGUÊS

埋め込み画像 4埋め込み画像 5

What time is Around the World?


AND YOU AND I - click image



NGC - UFO's in EUROPE (Porugal included)

FEBRUARY 7, 2013 - 7:00PM EST

FEBRUARY 7, 2013 - 7:00PM EST