Tuesday, December 29, 2009

Dec. 24 - Does the Allen Hills Meteorite from Mars Contain Fossilized Microbial Life?‏

Dear Friends,

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Be Well.


Does the Allen Hills Meteorite from Mars
Contain Fossilized Microbial Life?

© 2009 by Linda Moulton Howe

“The Allen Hills Martian meteorite suggests there is evidence
for life on ancient Mars. If that is true ... there could
still be life –
particularly in the subsurface regions of Mars”

- Kathie Thomas-Keptra, Ph.D., NASA Johnson Space Center

Mars by Hubble Space Telescope, June 30, 1999.

The Allan Hills meteorite (ALH84001) that crashed into Antarctica
about 13,000 years ago. Scientists say gases in the meteorite definitely match
1976 Viking data about the Martian atmosphere. Allen Hills has magnetite
crystals in its carbonate that match similar crystals produced by Earth
bacteria. Photograph © 2000 by David J. Phillip, AP.

Three darker carbon, tiny, worm-like structures might be fossilized Martian bacteria
photographed in the Allan Hills meteorite by Kathie Thomas-Keprta at the NASA Johnson
Space Center, Houston, Texas. Small magnetite crystals were discovered inside
the worm-like structures. Photomicrograph provided by the NASA
Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas.

Transmission electron microscopy of hexagonal-shaped magnetite
crystals (arrows) found inside the carbon worm-like structures in the Allan Hills
meteorite from Mars that might be fossilized bacteria. Image photographed by
Kathie Thomas-Keprta at the NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas.

December 24, 2009 Houston, Texas - On December 27, 1984, a team of U.S. meteorite hunters were searching in Allan Hills, Antarctica, when they discovered a 1.93 kilogram (about 4 pounds) meteorite dubbed “ALH 84001.” The rock is 3.9 billion years old and an analysis of trapped gases within ALH 84001 was an identical match to the Martian atmosphere that the 1976 Viking landers analyzed. So a new category of meteorites from Mars was confirmed.

Twelve years later after its discovery, the Allen Hills meteorite made worldwide headlines in 1996 when scientists announced the rock might contain microscopic fossils of Martian bacteria. At the time, Kathie Thomas-Keprta, a biochemist and senior scientist at Lockheed Martin's Johnson Space Center in Houston, had been studying the crystal structure and purity of magnetite beads manufactured in a species of Earth-based bacteria called magnetotactic, or MV-1. The crystals work like tiny compasses sensitive to the Earth's magnetic field. When terrestrial inorganic magnetites are studied, none have all the properties displayed in Earth's magnetotactic bacteria.

[ Editor's Note: Wikipedia - Magnetotactic bacteria (or MTB) are a class of bacteria discovered in the 1960s, that exhibit the ability to orient themselves along the magnetic field lines of Earth's magnetic field. To perform this task, these bacteria have organelles called magnetosomes that contain magnetic crystals. The biological phenomenon of microorganisms tending to move in response to the environment's magnetic characteristics is known as magnetotaxis, an instance of magnetoception. It is believed to aid these organisms in reaching regions of optimal oxygen concentration.]

Dr. Keprta then compared the Earth magnetotactic bacteria's magnetite with nearly identical magnetite crystals found in the Allan Hills meteorite from Mars. In 2000, she reported, “These populations are identical to each other. And if this Allan Hills rock were a terrestrial rock, there would be no doubt about biogenic activity associated with it. But because it comes from Mars, I'm going to have a lot of doubters!”

Doubters came forward with the hypothesis that the magnetite crystals could have resulted from thermal decomposition of the carbonate from the meteorite's impact heating.

Now nine years later and the recent development of high resolution electron microscopy, new analyses shows that at least 25% of the magnetite crystals embedded in the Allan Hills meteorite are chemically consistent with being formed by bacteria. Dr. Keprta and her NASA colleagues announced, “We feel vindicated about our original position that these structures are formed by bacteria on Mars.”

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How to Digitally Record/Video a UFO sighting:

Como registar digitalmente ou gravar um vídeo de um avistamento de um UFO:

Stabilize the camera on a tripod. If there is no tripod, then set it on top of a stable, flat surface. If that is not possible lean against a wall to stabilize your body and prevent the camera from filming in a shaky, unsteady manner.

Estabilize a camera com um tripé. Se não tiver um tripé, então coloque-a em cima de uma superfície estável. Se não for possível, então encoste-se a uma parede para estabilizar o corpo e evitar que a camera registe de maneira tremida e instável.

Provide visual reference points for comparison. This includes the horizon, treetops, lampposts, houses, and geographical landmarks (i.e., Horsetooth Reservoir, Mt. Adams, etc.) Provide this in the video whenever is appropriate and doesn’t detract from what your focus is, the UFO.

Forneça pontos visuais de referência para comparação. Isso inclui o horizonte, cimo das árvores, postes de iluminação, pontos de referência geográficos (como o Reservatório de Horsetooth, Mone Adams, etc) Forneça esses pontos no vídeo sempre que for apropriado e não se distraia do que é o seu foco, o UFO/a Nave.

Narrate your videotape. Provide details of the date, time, location, and direction (N,S,E,W) you are looking in. Provide your observations on the weather, including approximate temperature, windspeed, any visible cloud cover or noticeable weather anomalies or events. Narrate on the shape, size, color, movements, approximate altitude of the UFO, etc and what it appears to be doing. Also include any unusual physical, psychological or emotional sensations you might have. Narrate any visual reference points on camera so they correlate with what the viewer will see, and thereby will be better able to understand.

Faça a narração do vídeo. Forneça pormenores sobre a data, hora, local e direcção (Norte, Sul, Este, Oeste) que está a observar. Faça observações sobre as condições atmosféricas, incluindo a temperatura aproximada, velocidade do vento, quantidade de nuvens, anomalias ou acontecimentos meteorológicos evidentes. Descreva a forma, o tamanho, a cor, os movimentos, a altitude aproximada onde se encontra o UFO/nave, etc e o que aparenta estar a fazer. Inclua também quaisquer aspectos pouco habituais de sensações físicas, psicológicas ou emocionais que possa ter. Faça a narração de todos os pontos de referência visual que o espectador irá ver e que, deste modo, será capaz de compreender melhor.

Be persistent and consistent. Return to the scene to videotape and record at this same location. If you have been successful once, the UFO sightings may be occurring in this region regularly, perhaps for specific reasons unknown, and you may be successful again. You may also wish to return to the same location at a different time of day (daylight hours) for better orientation and reference. Film just a minute or two under “normal” circumstances for comparison. Write down what you remember immediately after. As soon as you are done recording the experience/event, immediately write down your impressions, memories, thoughts, emotions, etc. so it is on the record in writing. If there were other witnesses, have them independently record their own impressions, thoughts, etc. Include in this exercise any drawings, sketches, or diagrams. Make sure you date and sign your documentation.

Seja persistente e não contraditório. Volte ao local da cena e registe o mesmo local. Se foi bem sucedido uma vez, pode ser que nessa região ocorram avistamentos de UFOs/naves com regularidade, talvez por razões específicas desconhecidas, e talvez possa ser novamente bem sucedido. Pode também desejar voltar ao mesmo lugar a horas diferentes do dia (durante as horas de luz)para ter uma orientação e referência melhor. Filme apenas um ,inuto ou dois em circunstâncias “normais” para ter um termo de comparação. Escreva tudo o que viu imediatamente após o acontecimento. Logo após ter feito o registo da experiência/acontecimento, escreva imediatamente as impressões, memórias, pensamentos, emoções, etc para que fiquem registadas por escrito. Se houver outras testemunhas, peça-lhes para registar independentemente as suas próprias impressões, pensamentos, etc. Inclua quaisquer desenhos, esbolos, diagramas. Certifique-se que data e assina o seu documento/testemunho.

Always be prepared. Have a digital camera or better yet a video camera with you, charged and ready to go, at all times. Make sure you know how to use your camera (and your cell phone video/photo camera) quickly and properly. These events can occur suddenly, unexpectedly, and often quite randomly, so you will need to be prepared.

Esteja sempre preparado, Tenha sempre uma camera digital, melhor ainda, uma camera vídeo consigo, carregada e pronta a usar sempre que necessário. Certifique-se que sabe como lidar com a sua camera (ou com o seu celular/camera fotográfica) rápida e adequadamente. Esses acontecimentos podem acontecer súbita e inesperadamente e, por vezes, acidentalmente, por isso, necessita estar preparado.

Look up. Be prepared. Report. Share.

Olhe para cima, Esteja preparado, Relate, Partilhe.



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