Tuesday, April 20, 2010

April 14 - Gravity Affects Time Flow‏

Dear Friends,

Be Well.


Gravity Affects Time Flow

Andres Cordova
Epoch Times Staff

Scientists have found that how fast the clock ticks is influenced  by gravitational redshift.
Scientists have found that how fast the clock ticks is influenced by gravitational redshift. (

Three physicists from the United States and Germany have confirmed that a phenomenon known as gravitational redshift, which causes time to slow down near a huge mass, is true to a precision of seven parts in a billion (7 × 10^–9).

The confirmation of the gravitational redshift effect verifies that the flow of time is not constant throughout our universe. Instead, it varies according to the relative position to massive bodies and the gravitational pull that these enormous masses can exert.

To illustrate in simple terms, if a clock is close to a massive body, or if it is being pulled by a huge gravitational force, the closer it is to this huge celestial body or the stronger the gravitational pull, the slower the clock will tick.

This research was carried out by Dr. Holger Müller from the University of California, Berkeley, United States Secretary of Energy Dr. Steven Chu, and Dr. Achim Peters from Berlin’s Humboldt University.

One of the limitations of these redshift effect measurements that were undertaken is that they are limited by the degree of gravitational pull that the Earth’s mass provides. Nevertheless, thanks to an extremely precise clock, the scientists were able to dramatically increase the precision of their experiment.

Chu and Müller based their new research on results from an experiment done by Peters and Chu back in 1997. The experiment consisted of trapping cesium atoms with laser pulses, and then reducing their velocity as much as possible by cooling them at a temperature of a few millionths of a degree above absolute zero. After that, the cesium atoms were struck with a vertical laser beam, giving them an upward kick in order to measure the gravitational freefall.

To properly measure gravitational redshift, Chu and Müller re-interpreted those results and came up with a new experiment.

In the new experiment, each of the atoms tested would be exposed to three laser pulses. The first pulse would generate one of two equally probable states on the cesium atom—either it would not have any effect whatsoever and the atom would fall down by the pull of gravity, or the laser would give it an upward kick that would make it reach a higher height before descending.

If the latter state happened, then a second pulse would be applied at a certain moment in order to push down the atom faster, simulating greater gravity. This would cause the atoms at the two superposition states to meet when they were on their way down.

At this moment, the third pulse would be fired. Its purpose is to measure the interference between those two states, which happens because atoms exist as waves. Any difference in gravitational redshift between the states, which exist at different heights over Earth’s surface, would manifest itself as a certain change in the relative phase of both states.

In order to increase the precision of the measurements, Dr. Müller plans to increase the distance between the two superposition states of the cesium atoms during his experiment. According to Müller, if the current distance, which is 0.1 mm, were to be increased to 1 m, then it should be possible for scientists to detect gravitational waves—fluctuations in the curvature of space-time which were predicted by Einstein in his Theory of General Relativity.

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How to Digitally Record/Video a UFO sighting:

Como registar digitalmente ou gravar um vídeo de um avistamento de um UFO:

Stabilize the camera on a tripod. If there is no tripod, then set it on top of a stable, flat surface. If that is not possible lean against a wall to stabilize your body and prevent the camera from filming in a shaky, unsteady manner.

Estabilize a camera com um tripé. Se não tiver um tripé, então coloque-a em cima de uma superfície estável. Se não for possível, então encoste-se a uma parede para estabilizar o corpo e evitar que a camera registe de maneira tremida e instável.

Provide visual reference points for comparison. This includes the horizon, treetops, lampposts, houses, and geographical landmarks (i.e., Horsetooth Reservoir, Mt. Adams, etc.) Provide this in the video whenever is appropriate and doesn’t detract from what your focus is, the UFO.

Forneça pontos visuais de referência para comparação. Isso inclui o horizonte, cimo das árvores, postes de iluminação, pontos de referência geográficos (como o Reservatório de Horsetooth, Mone Adams, etc) Forneça esses pontos no vídeo sempre que for apropriado e não se distraia do que é o seu foco, o UFO/a Nave.

Narrate your videotape. Provide details of the date, time, location, and direction (N,S,E,W) you are looking in. Provide your observations on the weather, including approximate temperature, windspeed, any visible cloud cover or noticeable weather anomalies or events. Narrate on the shape, size, color, movements, approximate altitude of the UFO, etc and what it appears to be doing. Also include any unusual physical, psychological or emotional sensations you might have. Narrate any visual reference points on camera so they correlate with what the viewer will see, and thereby will be better able to understand.

Faça a narração do vídeo. Forneça pormenores sobre a data, hora, local e direcção (Norte, Sul, Este, Oeste) que está a observar. Faça observações sobre as condições atmosféricas, incluindo a temperatura aproximada, velocidade do vento, quantidade de nuvens, anomalias ou acontecimentos meteorológicos evidentes. Descreva a forma, o tamanho, a cor, os movimentos, a altitude aproximada onde se encontra o UFO/nave, etc e o que aparenta estar a fazer. Inclua também quaisquer aspectos pouco habituais de sensações físicas, psicológicas ou emocionais que possa ter. Faça a narração de todos os pontos de referência visual que o espectador irá ver e que, deste modo, será capaz de compreender melhor.

Be persistent and consistent. Return to the scene to videotape and record at this same location. If you have been successful once, the UFO sightings may be occurring in this region regularly, perhaps for specific reasons unknown, and you may be successful again. You may also wish to return to the same location at a different time of day (daylight hours) for better orientation and reference. Film just a minute or two under “normal” circumstances for comparison. Write down what you remember immediately after. As soon as you are done recording the experience/event, immediately write down your impressions, memories, thoughts, emotions, etc. so it is on the record in writing. If there were other witnesses, have them independently record their own impressions, thoughts, etc. Include in this exercise any drawings, sketches, or diagrams. Make sure you date and sign your documentation.

Seja persistente e não contraditório. Volte ao local da cena e registe o mesmo local. Se foi bem sucedido uma vez, pode ser que nessa região ocorram avistamentos de UFOs/naves com regularidade, talvez por razões específicas desconhecidas, e talvez possa ser novamente bem sucedido. Pode também desejar voltar ao mesmo lugar a horas diferentes do dia (durante as horas de luz)para ter uma orientação e referência melhor. Filme apenas um ,inuto ou dois em circunstâncias “normais” para ter um termo de comparação. Escreva tudo o que viu imediatamente após o acontecimento. Logo após ter feito o registo da experiência/acontecimento, escreva imediatamente as impressões, memórias, pensamentos, emoções, etc para que fiquem registadas por escrito. Se houver outras testemunhas, peça-lhes para registar independentemente as suas próprias impressões, pensamentos, etc. Inclua quaisquer desenhos, esbolos, diagramas. Certifique-se que data e assina o seu documento/testemunho.

Always be prepared. Have a digital camera or better yet a video camera with you, charged and ready to go, at all times. Make sure you know how to use your camera (and your cell phone video/photo camera) quickly and properly. These events can occur suddenly, unexpectedly, and often quite randomly, so you will need to be prepared.

Esteja sempre preparado, Tenha sempre uma camera digital, melhor ainda, uma camera vídeo consigo, carregada e pronta a usar sempre que necessário. Certifique-se que sabe como lidar com a sua camera (ou com o seu celular/camera fotográfica) rápida e adequadamente. Esses acontecimentos podem acontecer súbita e inesperadamente e, por vezes, acidentalmente, por isso, necessita estar preparado.

Look up. Be prepared. Report. Share.

Olhe para cima, Esteja preparado, Relate, Partilhe.



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